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Australia begins aerial survey of the border region. [bab]

1960 (late)

Malaya's Tunku Abdul Rahman tries to mediate between Indonesia and The Netherlands and fails. [bab]

1960 March 03-09

Australia-Netherlands conference held in Hollandia. [bab]

1960 August

Diplomatic ties with the Netherlands severed by Indonesia; Parna (National Party) established in West New Guinea; Pro-Dutch PVP(Democratic People's Party) formed. Other parties follow. [bab]

1960 August

Dutch embassy in Jakarta closes and official Dutch/Indonesian diplomatic ties are severed. [jfs]

1961 January

John F Kennedy becomes US President. [jfs]

1961 January

Kennedy promises to end Soviet aid and intervention in Indonesia; By this date, 8 political parties had been established in West New Guinea: Democratic People's Party; National Party; New Guinea Unity Party; Papuan Youth Party; Unity Party of New Guinea; Strength through Unity Party; People's Party; and Union of Christians and Islamists. [bab]

1961 February

Elections are held for 16 members of the West New Guinea Council. A further 12 are selected by the Dutch for areas considered not yet ready for meaningful elections. [jfs]

1961 February

National elections to West New Guinea's New Guinea Council held. West New Guineans gain 22 out of the 28 seats. [bab]

1961 April

Nasution visits Australia. [bab]

1961 April 05

Inauguration of the New Guinea Council; a Papua and New Guinea contingent, including John Guise, attended the inauguration. [bab]

1961 April 05

Inauguration of the West New Guinea Council. Britain and Australia send representatives, the US does not. [jfs]

1961 September

A number of armed Indonesian infiltrators are rounded up by Dutch forces and local Papuans. [jfs]

1961 September 26

Dutch Foreign Minister Luns presents a proposal to the UNGA on West New Guinea's future. The 'Luns Plan' proposes an end to Dutch sovereignty and the establishment of a UN administration in West New Guinea to supervise and organise a plebiscite to decide the territory's final status. [jfs]

1961 September 27

Netherlands Foreign Minister Luns proposes a plan for UN administration of West New Guinea. [bab]

1961 November (late)

UN dismisses the Luns plan. [bab]

1961 November 24

UNGA votes on a Dutch backed 'compromise' proposal on West New Guinea which recognises the Papuan's right to self-determination and calls for direct Dutch/Indonesian negotiations on the issue. Although it is supported by 53 votes to 41, it does not receive the necessary two-thirds majority to be passed. Another Indonesian-backed resolution which makes no mention of self-determination receives 41 votes for and 40 against. Following this the Dutch announce that they will not pursue the Luns plan in the UNGA any further. [jfs]

1961 December 01

Following a vote by the West New Guinea Council, the territory is renamed West Papua and given a national anthem and a flag which flies alongside the Dutch tricolour. In addition to these measures, the West New Guinea Council responds to the recent UN vote by passing a series of resolutions supporting the Luns Plan and calling on all nations to respect the right of the Papuans to self-determination [jfs]

1961 December 19

Sukarno declares TRIKORA (KOTI): (People's Triple Command for the Liberation of West Irian); calling for a total mobilisation to destroy Dutch-promoted Papuan state; to fly the Indonesian flag over West Irian and to prepare for war over West Irian. [bab]

1961 December 19

Sukarno issues the 'peoples' Triple Command' (TRIKORA) calling for the total mobilization of the Indonesian people to 'liberate' West Irian. [jfs]


Onwards Defence buildup in Papua and New Guinea; increased border patrols and more administrative personnel. [bab]

1962 January

Serious defeat for Indonesian navy by the Dutch, off the coast of West New Guinea. [bab]

1962 January 15

'Battle of Arufura sea', Dutch/Indonesian naval clash off coast of West New Guinea results in the sinking' of an Indonesian naval patrol boat and the death of Commodore Yosophat Soedarso, Deputy Chief of the Indonesian naval staff. [jfs]

1962 January 17

Dutch and Indonesians accept a public invitation by U Thant for their New York representatives to meet with him to discuss the possibility of direct negotiations on West New Guinea. The talks stall on Indonesian insistence that any negotiations have to be based upon pre-condition that West New Guinea will eventually pass to their control. [jfs]

1962 February

President Kennedy's brother, US Attorney General Robert Kennedy visits Jakarta and The Hague in an effort to persuade both sides to begin direct negotiations. His visits are a success. [jfs]

1962 February 16

New Guinea Council informs Dutch government that the people of West New Guinea had chosen December 1 1970 as a target date for independence. [bab]

1962 March

Indonesian naval vessel, possibly a Russian built Skoryi destroyer, is sunk by the Dutch near the south coast of West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 March

Australians build an airstrip and defence base at Vanimo. [bab]

1962 March 11

On US instructions, U Thant appoints American diplomat Ellsworth Bunker as mediator for forthcoming Dutch/Indonesian talks. [jfs]

1962 March 20

Preliminary Dutch/Indonesian talks begin in Middelburg Virginia without pre-conditions. [jfs]

1962 March 24

Indonesians announce that they are withdrawing from the talks. [jfs]

1962 March 25

Indonesian aircraft attack a small Dutch naval vessel injuring three crew. [jfs]

1962 April 02

US inform Dutch of their proposals to resolve the West New Guinea dispute. Known as the 'Bunker plan' a key provision allows the transfer of the territory to Indonesia before any act of Papuan self-determination. Dutch Foreign Minister Luns condemns the plan while the Indonesians accept it as a basis for negotiation. [jfs]

1962 April 13

Twelve hour Dutch Cabinet meeting to discuss the Bunker plan. The Cabinet reluctantly agrees not to reject the plan outright. [jfs]

1962 April 14

Dutch Labour Party organises a 15,000 strong march in Amsterdam to protest at the dispatch of Dutch troop reinforcements to West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 May 25

UN makes public details of the Bunker plan. [jfs]

1962 May 26

Dutch agree to restart talks based upon the Bunker plan but on going disagreements between them and the Indonesians prevent talks from taking place. [jfs]

1962 June 29

Constantin Stavropoulos, the UN legal counsel advises Secretary General U Thant that 'there appears to emerge a strong presumption in favour of self-determination in situations such as that of West New Guinea on the basis of the wishes of the peoples of the territory concerned, irrespective of the legal stands or interests of other parties to the question'. [jfs]

1962 July

A number of border incidents had taken place by this date; a twenty-mile wide immunization belt was established on the Papua New Guinea side of the border. A Dutch and Australian joint surveying team erect border markers on the Fly River. [bab]

1962 July (early)

Dutch and Australian surveying teams set up border markers on Fly River following the Netherlands-Australia agreement over the marking of the Fly River border area. [bab]

1962 July 12

Talks reconvene. [jfs]

1962 July 28

Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio threatens to pull out of the talks but is persuaded to stay by President Kennedy. [jfs]

1962 July 30

Further talks held. [jfs]

1962 July/ August

The UN's Trusteeship Council produces a report on Australian New Guinea. Among its recommendations it calls for Australia to establish a national parliament in the territory of around 100 members to be elected on the basis of direct election by adult suffrage under a system of single member constituencies. [jfs]

1962 August 14

Talks suspended following the dropping of hundreds of Indonesian paratroops into West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 August 15

New York Agreement signed by Indonesia and the Netherlands. [jfs]

1962 August 15

New York Agreement whereby the Dutch cede control of West New Guinea to Indonesia. [bab]

1962 August 15

Signing at United Nations Headquarters of the Agreement concerning West New Guinea (West Irian) by representatives of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia. [un]

1962 August 17

Sukarno attributes the winning of West New Guinea to Guided Democracy. [bab]

1962 August 18 0001 GMT

Ceasefire in West New Guinea comes into force. [jfs]

1962 August 20

First UN military observers (LTNMO's) arrive under command of Swedish naval officer OW Melin. [jfs]

1962 August 21

Australia considers permissive residency requests from thousands of West New Guinea villagers. [bab]

1962 August 21

In a breech of the New York Agreement, 14 Indonesian troops landed near the West New Guinea capital Hollandia by submarine. [jfs]

1962 August 28

United Nations Military Observer team named to ensure execution of cease‑fire. [un]

1962 August 30

Pakistan agrees to provide 1,000 men as United Nations Security Force. [un]

1962 September

New Guinea Council reluctantly accepts the New York Agreement. [bab]

1962 September 01

Only nine of the twenty-eight West New Guinea Council members vote to endorse the New York Agreement. In a second vote, half the council walk out leaving the remaining fourteen to vote in favour by twelve to two. [jfs]

1962 September 07

Appointment of Jose Rolz‑Bennett United Nations Deputy Chef de Cabinet, as the representative of the Acting Secretary-General in the Territory. [un]

1962 September 19

Outbreak of cholera reported in Agats district. [un]

1962 September 19

'Papuan National Congress' organised by Herman Wajoi and Nicholas Tanggahma ends with a call for a plebiscite on West new Guinea to be held under UN auspices. [jfs]

1962 September 21

UNGA debate the New York Agreement and vote to pass a Dutch/Indonesian resolution on it by 89 votes to none with 14 abstentions. Dahomey later requests that its vote be changed to against. [jfs]

1962 September 21

Repatriation completed of all Indonesian troops not assigned to remain in West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 September 21

United Nations General Assembly approves Agreement of August 15 on the transfer of authority. [un]

1962 September 22

Jose Rolz‑Bennett arrives in Hollandia/Kotabaru. [un]

1962 September 24

United Nations Military Observer team withdraws on completion of mission in the Territory. [un]

1962 September 28

Dr. Pieter J Platteel, the last Dutch Governor of West New Guinea, leaves the territory. [jfs]

1962 October 01

UNTEA administration begins with Jose Rolz-Bennett as temporary administrator. [jfs]

1962 October 01

UNTEA take‑over from Netherlands Administration. Installation of Jose Rolz‑Bennett as Temporary Administrator. United Nations and Netherlands flags are raised side by side. [un]

1962 October 13

Cholera outbreak on south coast reaches epidemic proportions. [un]

1962 October 15

Amnesty granted to political prisoners. [un]

1962 October 24

Appointment of Dr. Djalal Abdoh (Iran) as UNTEA Administrator announced by Acting Secretary‑General. [un]

1962 October 29

Rear Admiral Reeser, Commander in Chief of the Dutch Armed Forces in the Territory, returns to the Netherlands. [un]

1962 October 7

Arrival in Sorong of main contingent of Pakistani troops serving in UNSP (14th Punjab). [un]

1962 November

Australia's defence expenditure increased. [bab]

1962 November 13

Arrival of Dr. Djalal Abdoh in Hollandia/Kotabaru. [un]

1962 November 15

Djalal Abdoh becomes UNTEA administrator. [jfs]

1962 November 15

Indonesian troops take over a stretch of road near Sorong and beat up several Papuan policemen. [jfs]

1962 November 16

Jose Rolz‑Bennett, Temporary Administrator, returns to United Nations Headquarters on completion of assignment. [un]

1962 November 20

Indonesian troops surround Sentani airstrip near Hollandia and hold several policemen at gunpoint preventing them from carrying out their assigned task of guarding the facility. [jfs]

1962 November 22

Last Dutch troops depart from West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 November 22

Last unit of Dutch troops returns to Amsterdam. [un]

1962 November 23

Arrival of Deputy Administrator, Dr. Sudhir Sen (India). [un]

1962 November 30

Administrator invests officers of the Court of Justice. [un]

1962 December 01

Papuan nationalist march cancelled after being banned by UNTEA. [jfs]

1962 December 02

Biak Numfor Council draft a resolution calling for a free plebiscite in 1964 under UN auspices. The resolution also condemns UN plans to handover the territory to a 'ruthless colonial power'. [jfs]

1962 December 04

Members of the New Guinea Council take Oath of Office. [un]

1962 December 05

Administrator addresses concluding Session of the 1962 New Guinea Council. [un]

1962 December 10

Indonesian troops open fire on Papuan demonstrators in Merauke injuring two. [jfs]

1962 December 13

Indonesian troops launch a mortar attack on a police station in Sorong. One Papuan policeman is killed. [jfs]

1962 December 15

Shooting incident at Sorong involving Indonesian troops and Papuan police results in death of one Papuan police officer, and the accidental wounding of two Dutch bystanders. [un]

1962 December 18

Letter sent to all Indonesian police commissioners working with UNTEA from Van Diest the head of the police branch of the Indonesian mission to UNTEA. The confidential letter orders them to ensure that police under their command sign pro-Indonesian statements calling for the early departure of UNTEA and the abandonment of any act of self-determination. [jfs]

1962 December 24

Garuda Indonesian Airways take over service in the Territory from Dutch airline "de Kronduiff"'[un]

1962 December 27

Cholera cases decline sharply. [un]

1962 December 30

Major General A. Jani, Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Army, arrives in Hollandia/Kotabaru for three‑day visit. [un]

1962 December 31

Indonesian flag hoisted side by side with United Nations flag. (Dutch flag had been flying side by side with United Nations Flag from 1 October.)[un]

1963 (early)

Australian aerial photography of border area and survey of northern border region. [bab]

1963 January (mid)

A series of pro-Indonesian marches involving Papuans takes place in Biak, Hollandia and Manokwari. No forewarning given to UNTEA despite the legal requirement to do so. [jfs]

1963 January 01

Administrator delivers New Year Message to population of the Territory. [un]

1963 January 01

Indonesian flag officially flown alongside UN flag. [jfs]

1963 January 02

Direct radio link established between Hollandia/Kotabaru and Djakarta. [un]

1963 January 13

Violence between pro and anti-Indonesian Papuans breaks out in Kaimana. [jfs]

1963 January 16

General Mohammad Musa Khan, Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Army, arrives in Territory for tour of inspection of Pakistani contingent Of UNSF. [un]

1963 January 17

A Papuan student is beaten up after pro-Indonesian Papuans enter the Government School of Administration in Hollandia looking for Papuan flags. [jfs]

1963 January 17

Joint FAO/Indonesian Mission completes agricultural survey tour of Territory. [un]

1963 January 17

Several Papuan nurses beaten up by Indonesian paratroops at Hollandia hospital. [jfs]

1963 January 21

Forty-four Papuan students who had fled to Australian New Guinea return to West New Guinea following assurances given by UNTEA regarding their safety. That evening they are attacked in their dormitories by around thirty pro-Indonesian Papuans armed with knives. Two students need hospital treatment. [jfs]

1963 February 01

Definite decline noted in cholera epidemic. [un]

1963 February 06

Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio announces that Jakarta accepts the date of 1 May 1963 for the transfer of power from UNTEA to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 February 09

Chakravarthy V. Narasimhan, Under Secretary for General Assembly affairs in the United Nations, arrives in Territory for three‑day visit. [un]

1963 February 09-12

Under Secretary General Narasimhan pays a visit to West New Guinea. In a speech he confirms the 1 May 1963 handover date. [jfs]

1963 February 14

Joint WHO‑UNICEF‑Indonesian team of health specialists begins one‑week study tour of the Territory. [un]

1963 February 17-18

Led by Sergeant Frits Awom, the Papuan Volunteer Corps (PVK) in Manokwari mutiny. The Indonesian army retreats to its barracks. On the morning of 18 February, the PVK returns to barracks but not all weapons are handed back. [jfs]

1963 February 20

UN officials trick the PVK into disarming. Their arms are then removed by Pakistani UNSF troops. [jfs]

1963 March 13

Indonesia reestablishes diplomatic relations with the Netherlands. [jfs]

1963 March 13

Resumption of diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and Indonesia. [un]

1963 March 16

Administrator opens new hospital in Biak. [un]

1963 March 23

Entire Territory declared cholera free. [un]

1963 March 26

Nederlandsche Handel Mattschappij (Dutch Bank) taken over by Bank Indonesia in the Territory. [un]

1963 March 27

Administrator opens new hospital in Wamena in the Central Highlands. [un]

1963 April 10

Administrator opens new deep water jetty and wharf in Biak. [un]

1963 April 10

Following increasing pressure from Indonesian UNTEA officials, the Biak Numfor Council repudiate their December resolution and sign another one praising Jakarta and pledging loyalty to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 April 11

Administrator opens Agricultural Research Station in Manokwari, the largest in the South Pacific. [un]

1963 April 23

Administrator addresses special session of New Guinea Council in new Council building. [un]

1963 April 23

UNTEA administrator Abdoh formally opens the new West New Guinea Council building in Hollandia. [jfs]

1963 April 25

Arrival of Robert Linquist, assistant to Ellsworth Bunker with the United Nations Military Observer team which came to the Terrritory in August to ensure execution of the cease‑fire. [un]

1963 April 29

Arrival of Chakravarthy V. Narasimhan, personal representative of the Secretary‑General for the handing over of administration. [un]

1963 May 01

End of UNTEA; full Indonesian control of West New Guinea; Elizier Bonay becomes Governor of West Irian. [bab]

1963 May 01

Transfer of Administration from UNTEA to Indonesia. [un]

1963 May 01

UNTEA transfers administration of West New Guinea to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 May 02

Sukarno first visited Kotabaru, renamed it Sukarnapura; arrived in destroyer Irian, a gift from USSR in support of Irianese liberation from the Dutch; DPRD (regional parliament) installed, consisting of 42 members, 33 of whom were Papuans. [bab]

1963 May 04

Indonesian President Sukarno arrives in West New Guinea (West Irian) for a visit. Appoints Papuan politician Eliezer Bonay as Governor. Soon afterwards, Sukarno orders the banning of all existing Papuan political parties and all unofficial political activity. [jfs]

1963 May 14

UN Under Secretary-General Narasimhan writes to the Indonesian government announcing the Secretary General's intention to send a number of 'experts' to West Irian as specified in article XVI of the New York Agreement. In the event none are ever deployed. [jfs]

1963 May 21

Confidential Australian communication reports that the Dutch and UN Under Secretary General Narasimhan have agreed that a Papuan act of self-determination need not involve any direct voting on the issue by the Papuan population. Instead, some form of 'representative' assembly could decide on behalf of the people. [jfs]

1963 May/ June

220 West Papuan refugees from the Merauke region cross the border into Australian New Guinea. [jfs]

1963 July

About 400 border dwellers from near Merauke crossed to Bensbach, Papua and New Guinea; granted permissive residence. [bab]

1963 September

Indonesia-Australia agreements to allow Australia to set up temporary border markers on the Papua and New Guinea side of the border. [bab]

1963 November

Pacific Islands Regiment patrols around Ningerum showed local population where the border was to be fixed. Indonesian troops destroy survey work of the Australian team and force the team away from the border at gunpoint. [bab]

1963 November

The United Nations Fund for West Irian (FUNDWI) is established. [jfs]


During the year, Territory of Papua and New Guinea Army, Police and Department of Native Affairs border surveillance is upgraded. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Agriculture policy and development plan for the border area is submitted. [bab]

1964 January

Indonesian-Australian talks in Jakarta; Subandrio agrees that border marking should be continued and a joint team established. [bab]

1964 May

UN Under Secretary-General Rolz‑Bennett arrives in Jakarta for talks with Sukarno. He privately repeats Narasimhan's view that the Papuan act of self-determination need not include any direct voting by the West Irian population on the issue. He then briefly travels to West Irian visiting Biak, Sukarnapura (Jayapura) and Manokwari.[jfs]

1964 July 30 - August 04

First meeting to discuss the work of demarcating the border to be carried out by both Indonesian and Australian survey teams held in Djakarta; it was agreed that 14 markers would be placed by the joint team along the border, and that further negotiations would be held. [bab]

1964 August

After waiting a year, two US embassy officials are given official permission to make a ten day visit to West Irian.[jfs]

1964 November 20

Franz Kaisiepo became new Governor of West Irian, replacing Bonay. [bab]

1964 December

Indonesia withdraws from UN over Malaysia issue. [bab]


OPM founded in Bird's Head region. Sporadic rebellions on‑going in the area since 1963.[jfs]

1965 January 7

Indonesia withdraws from the UN in protest at the appointment of Malaysia as a non‑permanent member of the UN Security Council. This is part of Sukarno's on-going 'Confrontation' with Britain and Malaysia. [jfs]

1965 May

Sukarno rules out any act of self‑determination for West Irian. He claims that the Irianese (Papuans) do not want it. OPM members arrested in Bird's Head region following attempted raisings of the Papuan flag. In Biak, Papuan rebels are reported to have attacked Shell Oil Company installations.[jfs]

1965 July 26

An isolated patrol post in West Irian was attacked by Kebar tribesmen. [bab]
Papuan government employees attack and kill a number of Indonesian soldiers during an illegal Papuan flag raising ceremony.[jfs]

1965 July 28

Formation of OPM. Permenas Awom and Johan Ariks led an attack on the Indonesian Red Beret unit at Arafai in Manokwari destroying the unit. Lodewijk Mandatjan led a large number of Arfak tribesmen into the jungle. Around this time, Marcus Kaisiepo in Holland declared himself President-in-exile and formed the High Court Chamber of Representatives of West New Guinea and West Papua, and Nicolaas Jouwe formed the Committee for the Freedom of West Papua. [bab]

1965 August 4

Indonesia launches Operation Sadar - the first Indonesian military counter-insurgency operation.[jfs]

1965 August 12

A battalion of the Indonesian army parachute commando regiment is flown to Biak from Jakarta in response to Papuan unrest.[jfs]

1965 August 25

Mandatjan and his followers returned from the jungle. [bab]

1965 September 30 - October 2

Unsuccessful coup attempt in which the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) is implicated. As a result, thousands of Indonesians, accused of being left-wing, are killed. Over the next two years Sukarno loses power and is replaced by the pro-Western President Suharto. [jfs]

1965 October 01

Coup which ushered in New Order and mass killings of PKI; KOPKAMTIB established. [bab]


Territory of Papua and New Guinea Sepik District is divided into East and West. [bab]

1966 March 11

KOPKAMTIB strengthened by Presidential Order. [bab]

1966 May

The second meeting to discuss survey of the border between Indonesian and Australian Papua and New Guinea held in Canberra, and gave approval to the idea that markers were to be placed by the Joint Border Survey team. [bab]

1966 June 30 - September (mid)

Joint Border Survey team establishes six northern border markers. [bab]

1966 August

Indonesian Foreign Minister Malik visits West Irian accompanied by a number of foreign journalists. [jfs]

1966 September 30

During a visit to the UN in New York to arrange Indonesia's re-entry to the organisation, Foreign Minister Malik announces that Jakarta will permit a Papuan act of self-determination. [jfs]

1966 November

FUNDWI programs resumed after Indonesia rejoins UN. [bab]


Freeport Sulphur granted a license to begin mining operations in West Irian. Throughout the year Papuan armed rebellion continues, particularly in the Bird's Head region. [jfs]

1967 (early)

Lodewijk and Barend Mandatjan and Fritz Awom declared Manokwari a 'free Papuan state'. There were disturbances in Merauke, Kokanao and Fakfak organised by indigenous soldiers and police but soon suppressed. Border crossings increased. [bab]

1967 January

Indonesian military aircraft strafe Manokwari town. The Indonesian government later explains that this was in response to Frits Awom declaring a 'free Papuan state'. Indonesia also admits that forty Papuans were killed in the attack. [jfs]

1967 January 03

Lodewijk Mandatjan led 14,000 Arfak tribespeople into the jungle, taking about 1,000 firearms. [bab]

1967 January / February

The third meeting to discuss the Joint Border Survey team's work of border demarcation held, in Djakarta; agreed that aerial survey markings of the border was to take place. [bab]

1967 February 13

Johan Ariks died in prison. [bab]

1967 April

Indonesia's Director-General for West Irian, Colonel Marwoto, accused Australia of harbouring anti-Indonesian Papuans in Australian New Guinea, 'The subversive group called the Free Papua Movement. Over 350 West Irianese people arrived at Weam in Papua. [bab]

1967 May

Australian External Affairs Minister Hasluck confirmed that 'something like 1,200 native people from West Irian had crossed the border since 1963. Of these, 'a very small number only' had asked for political asylum. [bab]

1967 September 08

The establishment of the eight southern border markers is completed. [bab]


'Operation Awareness' [Operasi Sadar] launched in West Irian. [bab]

1968 (late)

Forty Irianese from Vanimo and Wewak were shifted to Manus. [bab]

1968 (mid)

According to Sarwo Edhie, about 6,000 troops were used in West Irian to suppress uprisings. [bab]

1968 January 21

Raid by 'separatists' on Makwu post, West Irian. [bab]

1968 February 02

Raid on Sausapor, near Sorong, by 'separatists'. [bab]

1968 April 01

Ortiz Sanz appointed UN Representative for West Irian (UNRWI). [jfs]

1968 May

Indonesian ministerial delegation visits West Irian led by the Sultan of Jogjakarta. Members are privately appalled at the scale of the economic problems in the territory and the level of unpopularity of the Indonesians among the Papuan population. [jfs]

1968 June

Six Indonesian military generals visit West Irian to assess the security situation. [jfs]

1968 June (mid)

An Indonesian combat force is sent to West Irian from South Celebes in response to continued armed Papuan rebellion. [jfs]

1968 June 29

Brigadier-General Sarwo Edhie Wibowo is appointed military commander for West Irian. [jfs]

1968 August 12

Jakarta announces that in recent military operations in West Irian 162 Papuan rebels have been killed and 3,200 surrendered. [jfs]

1968 August 12

Ortiz Sanz arrives in Indonesia. [jfs]

1968 August 20

An Indonesian government team led by Foreign Minister Malik make a four day tour of West Irian accompanied by a number of foreign journalists. [jfs]

1968 August 23

Ortiz Sanz arrives in West Irian. [jfs]

1968 August 26

Ortiz Sanz and three of his staff begin a ten day tour of West Irian accompanied by Indonesian officials. [jfs]

1968 September (late)

Ian Morgan, a British diplomat based in Jakarta. makes a brief tour of West Irian in the company of a number of Australian officials. [jfs]

1968 October 31

Patrols sent out by Territory of Papua New Guinea to clear squatters inl border camps. [bab]

1968 November 01

Leaflets signed by Sarwo Edhie are distributed around the Bird's Head peninsula calling for rebels to surrender by 1 December. [jfs]

1968 November 14

Ortiz Sanz suggests a 'mixed method' for the Act in a meeting with Sudjarwo. [jfs]

1968 November 18 - December 14

Ortiz Sanz and members of his team embark on a second tour of West Irian [jfs]

1968 December

Military Commander of West Irian, Brig.Gen. Sarwo Edhie, visits Port Moresby, accompanied by Deputy Governor Amos Indey and Provincial Security Officer, Col. Loekito Santoso. [bab]

1968 December 01

Indonesian military launches another offensive in the Bird's Head Peninsula. [jfs]

1968 December 18

UNGA passes a resolution on Australian New Guinea calling for Australia to fix an early date for self‑determination and independence in accordance with the freely expressed wishes of the people. It also calls for Australia to hold free elections under UN supervision on the basis of universal suffrage in order to transfer power to the representatives of the TPNG people. [jfs]

1969 January

Major Lodewijk Mandatjan and his brother Barend gave up fighting against Indonesian forces; Indonesian security forces used the brothers to publicise the Act of Free Choice and to persuade Fritz Awom to surrender. [bab]

1969 January (mid)

Rebellion on Bird's Head erupts again under the leadership of Frits Awom. [jfs]

1969 January 01

Papuan Bird's Head rebel leaders the Mandatjan brothers surrender to Indonesian forces. [jfs]

1969 January 03

Foreign Affairs Minister Malik announces that the Act of Free Choice will be arranged by Indonesia and. not the UN. 'Operation Authority' [Operasi Wibawa] launched in Irian Jaya as a prelude to the Act of Free Choice.

1969 January 16

Malik explained that the 'one man, one vote' system would not be practical in Irian Barat. [bab]

1969 January 30

Rolz Bennett writes to Ortiz Sanz informing him of Indonesia's rejection of his 'mixed method' suggestion for the Act. [jfs]

1969 January 7

Mandatjan brothers flown to Jakarta on a the same plane as ex‑West Irian governor Eliezer Bonay (recently released from prison), Ortiz Sanz and his wife. [jfs]

1969 February

In his first speech as Australian External Affairs Minister, Gordon Freeth indicates that Australia would accept the results of an act of self-determination in West Irian which consisted of a polling of 1000 representatives. [jfs]

1969 February 10‑12

Ortiz Sanz holds a series of meetings with Sudjarwo and other Indonesian officials. Sudjarwo gives him some details of Indonesian plans for the Act. [jfs]

1969 March

The Dutch privately ask U Thant to consider sending an 'expeditionary force' to West Irian to guarantee that the Indonesian military would not threaten or coerce the Papuans during the vote. U Thant declines to do so. [jfs]

1969 March 18

Ortiz Sanz issues a press release commenting on Indonesian plans for the Act. To be acceptable he states that the Assemblies would have to be sufficiently large and represent all sectors of the community. He also insists that all additional members would have to be clearly elected by the people. Indonesia he declared had given him assurances on all these issues. [jfs]

1969 March 22 - April 11

Eight regional councils meet to consider Indonesian proposals for the Act. Indonesian and UN reports say that the councils all accept while emphasising that the Act is unnecessary. In contrast, British journalist Garth Alexander claims that at the council meeting he witnessed in Merauke most members called for a more democratic method for the Act. [jfs]

1969 March 24

195 West Papuan political detainees released (including ex-Governor Bonay) to meet requirements set by Ortiz-Sanz. [bab]

1969 April (mid)

Widescale rebellions erupt in Western Central Highlands. Ninety armed Papuan policemen mutiny and join the rebels. [jfs]

1969 April 11

Demonstration by Papuans in front of Ortiz Sanz's Jayapura residence calling for a referendum on self-determination. Dispersed by Indonesian troops who arrest many demonstrators despite military assurances to Ortiz Sanz that they would take no action. [jfs]

1969 April 11

Demonstrators near Jayapura proclaim a 'National Republic of West Papua'; OPM leaders claim that there were over 5000 demonstrators, addressed by Moses Weror and Herman Wajoi, chairman of the Provincial parliament, with Ortiz-Sanz present. The Indonesian delegation headed by Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro was to meet the leaders, but the demonstrators were dispersed by machine-gun fire prior to the meeting. Moses Weror and 11 others were imprisoned at Ifar Gunung, the Army prison. In November 1969 the prisoners were removed to Abepura because Ifar Gunung was so full of OPM prisoners. [bab]

1969 April 16

Five armed Indonesian soldiers force their way into Ortiz Sanz's Jayapura residence and try to arrest Marshal Williams, UNRWI's black American Chief Administrative Officer mistaking him for a Papuan. [jfs]

1969 April 20

The selection process begins without any UN involvement for additional Assembly members for the Act. [jfs]

1969 April 23‑24

Uprisings in Paniai Regency; this was intended to signal uprisings throughout West Irian in all district capitals, to begin in the week prior to 1 May, to be followed by a proclamation from leaders at either Wamena or Jayapura. Only Enarotali revolted. One of the Jayapura DPRD members was kidnapped; air fields sabotaged to prevent troop landings; Brig.Gen. Sarwo Edhie's plane was fired upon by rifles when seeking to land at Enarotali to investigate reports of uprisings; his plane later landed at Nabire. 4 battalions of Red Beret paratroopers were dropped by Hercules aircraft at Enarotali, and most were believed drowned in Lake Paniai, or killed by OPM forces. Sarwo Edhie denies use of force by Government. [bab]

1969 April 24

Nine ground force task units were despatched to Irian Barat. [bab]

1969 April 26

111 West Irianese crossed to Yako quarantine camp. Fifteen uniformed Indonesian soldiers cross into Territory of Papua and New Guinea searching for refugees around Wutung and fired shots at the Officer in Charge of Wutung Patrol Post and two constables. [bab]

1969 April 27

Muju tribesmen attack an army camp near Merauke killing three Indonesian soldiers. [jfs]

1969 April 27

Plane carrying Brig. Gen. Sarwo Edhie hit by groundfire while trying unsuccessfully to land at Enarotali. [jfs]

1969 April 30

Indonesian paratroops dropped into rebel held areas. Approximately 14,000 locals are reported to have fled into the bush. [jfs]

1969 April / May

Indonesian troops cross into TPNG in pursuit of West Papuan refugees killing two. [jfs]

1969 May 01

300 Papuans demonstrate in Arso and raise the West Papuan Rag. Two demonstrators are shot by Indonesian security forces. [jfs]

1969 May 09

Press reports that foreign visitors to Irian Barat need special clearances; Irian Barat still regarded as a'special area'. [bab]

1969 May 12

Ortiz Sanz writes to Rolz Bennett saying that he wishes to ask the Indonesians to postpone the Act for several months in order to give enough time for the democratic conditions in the territory to be improved. The request is never made. [jfs]

1969 May 12-18

In response to the rebellions, Ortiz Sanz flies from Jakarta for a week long visit to West Irian. On his return, he issues a press statement (which was written before the trip took place) announcing that the situation is quiet but tense and that foreign press reports have been exaggerated. [jfs]

1969 May 18

Indonesian troops cross border into Papua New Guinea, fire on an Irianese camp at Kwari; Malik responded by claiming that Indonesia had been attacked by rebels based in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1969 May 21

Indonesian and Dutch Foreign Minister's Malik and Luns issue a joint statement following a meeting in Rome in which they pledge to fully implement the New York Agreement. [jfs]

1969 May 24

An estimated 500 University of Papua New Guinea students protest against the Act of Free Choice in West Irian. [bab]

1969 May 27

Malik reported to say that Kwari refugee camps were anti-Indonesian training camps. [bab]

1969 May 29

Clemens Runaweri and Wilhelms Zongganao crossed the border into Papua New Guinea. Indonesian soldiers crossed over 10 miles into Papua and shot dead an Irianese refugee, Julius Yam. [bab]

1969 May 30

Australian Ambassador to Indonesia, Gordon Jockel, asked Malik if it was true that Malik had accused Australia of establishing a training camp in Papua New Guinea close to the Irian Barat border. Jockel presented a protest and stated that Australia did not have a camp there. Malik said he had not accused Australia, and had used the words 'if there is...' [bab]

1969 May 30

Six weeks after the process has commenced, the UNRWI team receive a timetable for 'elections' of additional assembly members for the Act. [jfs]

1969 June

The number of refugees in the various holding camps in Papua New Guinea were: Yako 112; Morehead 280 and Manus 56. [bab]

1969 June 04

In Biak, UN officials witness their first selection process for additional assembly members. [jfs]

1969 June 06

Malik states that Indonesia would 'take all steps' to prevent further border incidents. [bab]

1969 June 06

Original date given by Indonesia for the end of the Assembly selection process. [jfs]

1969 June 07

Enarotali chiefs and village heads returned from the jungle to their homes. [bab]

1969 June 10-11

Mr Royce Webb and Mr. Ken Brown of the Department of District Administration and Mr. J.M.C. Watson, First Secretary, Australian Embassy, Djakarta, meet with authorities in Djajapura to discuss the improvement of liaison along the border, including regular meetings between officer in charge, and radio and telephone links; Royce Webb was later chosen to be Australia's liaison officer in Djajapura. [bab]

1969 June 11

28 aspiring Papuan refugees killed by ABRI in the border region (Osborne 1985: 157). [sek]

1969 June 13

Ortiz Sanz writes to Sudjarwo requesting that he hold some fresh elections in areas where no UN officials were present during the original selection process for the Act. [jfs]

1969 June 14

Ortiz Sanz writes to Rolz Bennett informing him that he has urged the Indonesians to obtain assurances from the Dutch that they won't challenge the result of the Act. He also reveals that he has offered to show Sudjarwo 'on a personal basis' those parts of his planned report to the UNGA which 'might be controversial'. [jfs]

1969 June 18

Malik claimed that under the border agreement between Indonesia and Australia, Australia was bound to return every West Irianese who crossed into Australian territory. [bab]

1969 June 23

Indonesia sends Ortiz Sanz a timetable for nine fresh elections. In the end the UN witnesses six. In total the UN witnesses the selection of 195 of the 1022 representatives who eventually take part in the Act. [jfs]

1969 June 27

The House of Assembly of Territory of Papua and New Guinea passed a resolution of 'deep concern' over Indonesia's musjawarah and UN acceptance of it and not the 'one man, one vote' system. [bab]

1969 June 28

TPNG Assembly adopts a resolution criticising Indonesia and the UN for neglecting the political and human rights of the Papuans. [jfs]

1969 July (early)

Representatives for the Act - are reportedly isolated from the rest of the population by the Indonesians. [jfs]

1969 July (late)

2nd Paniai revolt. (Osborne 1985: 47) [sek]

1969 July 01

Renewed rebellion in Western Central Highlands involving Ekari tribesmen. [jfs]

1969 July 14

Merauke's musyawarah. 6 delegates are killed by fellow Papuans (Osborne 1985: 47). [sek]

1969 July 14

The Act of Free Choice begins with a unanimous vote by the Merauke Assembly to remain with Indonesia. Among the guests at the event are various foreign ambassadors including those from Australia and the Netherlands. [jfs]

1969 July 14 - August 2

Eight assemblies vote in the Act of Free Choice. [bab]

1969 July 15

Ortiz Sanz gives a press conference and defends the Indonesian method adopted for the Act as 'practical'. [jfs]

1969 July 17

The Wamena Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 19

The Nabire Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. Scheltema, the Dutch Ambassador leaves the territory and does not witness the remaining Assembly votes. [jfs]

1969 July 23

The Fak Fak Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 26

The Sorong Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 29

The Manokwari Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. Australian journalist Hugh Lunn witnesses Papuan demonstrators outside the Assembly hall thrown into trucks and driven away by Indonesian security forces. He goes inside and tells Ortiz Sanz who reportedly refuses to intervene. [jfs]

1969 July 31

The Biak Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 August 02

The final assembly meeting takes place in Jayapura with a unanimous vote to remain with Indonesia. The authorities organise celebrations to mark the end of the Act. [jfs]

1969 August 17

Ortiz Sanz attends celebrations in Jakarta to mark the twenty‑fourth anniversary of the 1945 proclamation of Indonesian independence. [jfs]

1969 August 18

Ortiz Sanz leaves Indonesia [jfs]

1969 September

Soeharto and entourage visit West Irian to officiate at ceremonies marking the completion of the 'Act of Free Choice'; West Irian becomes Indonesia's 17th Province; Soeharto declares an amnesty for those who had taken part in the Awom, Mandatjan and Enarotali revolts. Security increased on both sides of the border because of Soeharto's visit. [bab]

1969 September 04

Duco Middelburg (Netherlands Ambassador to the UN) comments privately to his Australian counterpart, Patrick Shaw, that he 'hopes that the handling of the Act in the UNGA will go quietly'. [jfs]

1969 September 10

Confidential FCO briefing to the UK Mission to the UN in New York advises them to 'steer clear' of the West Irian issue but adds 'privately however, we recognise that the people of West Irian have no desire to be ruled by the Indonesians ...and that the process of consultation did not allow a genuinely free choice to be made'. [jfs]

1969 September / October

Indonesian Foreign Minister Malik tours a number of African countries to argue the Indonesian position over the Act. Papuan nationalist Nicholas Jouwe also tours Africa lobbying against Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 October

Sarwo Edhie offered amnesty to those who had fled to Papua New Guinea l to return to West Irian, amnesty to be in force until end of 1969. [bab]

1969 November 06

UN Secretary General U Thant presents his report on the Act to the UNGA. It consists of a summary by himself followed by reports from Ortiz Sanz and the Indonesians. [jfs]

1969 November 13‑19

Series of plenary meetings held at the UNGA to discuss a resolution which 'takes note' of the results of the Act and the UN's fulfillment of its role in the procedure. The resolution is sponsored by Belgium, Indonesia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Thailand. [jfs]

1969 November 18

A number of African representatives at the UN hold a 'stormy' meeting on the Act and refuse to receive the Indonesian permanent representative. [jfs]

1969 November 19

UNGA votes by 58 to 31 with 24 abstentions to reject a move by Dahomey for an adjournment for further consultations on the Act. It then votes by 60 to 15, with 39 abstentions, to reject a Ghanian amendment to the resolution on the Act which calls for a further act of free choice in West Irian by the end of 1975. Finally, the UNGA votes by 84 to none with 30 abstentions to pass the unamended resolution on the Act. [jfs]

1969 December 15

286 refugees from the southern border area accepted the offer of amnesty and were flown to Merauke; another 40 walked back across the border. [bab]

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