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500 villagers killed in Lereh (TAPOL in Osborne 1985: 50). [sek]


ABRI punative expedition to Biak's west coast. A mass grave is made and people are drowned at sea (B&L 1988: 79). [sek]


During 1970Sekotchiau village opts to become part of Territory of Papua and New Guinea and border surveillance declines. [bab]

1970 till 1974

Operasi Wibawa under General Acub Zainal (Osborne 1985: 145). [sek]

1970 May

ABRI's Undayana Division shot Maria Bonsapia and her fetus was cut from her womb and dissected. [sek]

1970 June

Mass killings of West Papuans reported to have occurred in Biak. [bab]

1971 May 21

OPM raid led by Peter Bonsafia on a sawmill at Abepura, killing all but one of the workers. Sawyer, Ali Gora, taken prisoner and from then on worked with the OPM for some years. [bab]

1971 July

Waris attacked by OPM forces led by Jereth Wajoi to give force to the proclamation of independence. [bab]

1971 July 01

Republic of West Papua proclaimed by Seth Rumkorem at Markas Victoria. A constitution and programme were drafted and adopted. [bab]

1971 July 01

Seth Rumkorem issues declaration of independence (B &       L 1988: 64-5) (Osborne 1985: 55-6) [sek]

1972 August 27

Secretary of Australian Department of Foreign Affairs, Sir Keith Waller, led delegtion to Jakarta to discuss West Irian - Territory of Papua and New Guinea border and continental shelf boundaries and joint naval exercises. [bab]

1972 October

Australian, Indonesian and Papua New Guinea officials met in Jakarta to discuss border delineation and administration. [bab]

1972 July - August

Eight West Papuan border crossers deported by Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 January 22‑26

Second phase of negotiations in Canberra to determine Indonesia-Australia boundaries between West Irian and Territory of Papua and New Guinea and the sea boundaries south of Irian; the Australian delegation contained some Papua New Guinea representatives. [bab]

1973 February 12

Somare visited Jakarta and on behalf of Australian government, signed agreement with Indonesia defining territorial water boundaries and land boundaries between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia; Kompas reported an attack by 50 West Papuan rebels on an Indonesian medical team killing one and wounding another of the party of 12, 25 miles southwest of Vanimo; rebels were reported to have fled to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 March

Freeport Copper begins operations. [bab]

1973 March 01

The name West Irian was changed to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 March 06

Somare answered a question by Matiabe Yuwi referring to Irianese by stating that only two West Irianese had been granted percussive residence in the previous year. No applications had been received in the previous 6 months. [bab]

1973 March 13

Herman Womsiwor in The Hague announced that there were 5,000 troops under Seth Rumkorem in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 March 15

Soeharto thanked Australia for banning OPM from Papua New Guinea [bab]

1973 April 11

5 West Papuans sentenced by Vanimo court to from two to six months imprisonment for illegal entry. [bab]

1973 May 13

Arms taken from a band of West Papuans under Martin Sesarai in Papua New Guinea were reported to have been handed back to Indonesia. [bab]

1973 May 7-10

13 Papua New Guinea businessmen travelled to Irian Jaya on trade talks. [bab]

1973 June 02

National Liberation Army (TPN) claimed to have wiped out an army garrison at Skopi village in the Baliem Valley; 13 reported killed. Acub Zainal was replaced as military commander of Irian Jaya by Col. Kisrad Sutrisno, formerly chief of staff. [bab]

1973 June 22

Rudjito installed by Malik as Consul-General to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 June 29

Acub Zainal and Domine Jan Mamoribo installed as Governor and Deputy Governor of Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 July 12

Reported minor clash between Indonesian and OPM forces under Rumkorem; none hurt. [bab]

1973 July 19

An West Papuans who had crossed the border illegally about 20 times and who had continually failed to substantiate a case of political persecution in Irian Jaya was again deported Chief Minister Somare would not disclose criteria for recommending permissive residency. [bab]

1973 August

Albert Maori Kilo appointed minister for defence and foreign relations; soon after taking up office Kiki had secret talks with OPM leaders designed to effect a peaceful solution of OPM-Indonesian Government problems. [bab]

1973 August 8

Three of the 5 West Papuans charged in April were ordered to return to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 September

Freeport's opening ceremony. Suharto changes name from "Irian Barat" to "Irian Jaya" (B&L 1988: 33). [sek]

1973 September

OPM announces that 30,000 people killed by Indonesian troops since 1963 (B&L 1988: 66) [sek]

1973 September 04

First Indonesian Consul-General Brigadier General Roedjito arrived in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 September 25

Series of negotiations on administration of Indonesian. Territory of Papua and New Guinea boundary opened in Jakarta (Papua New Guinea represented by Australian Solicitor-General, R. J. Elliot). [bab]

1973 September 28

A memorandum of understanding signed by parties to negotiations on border. [bab]

1973 October 14

Major General Ali Murtopo visiting Papua New Guinea argued that there should be defence co-operation between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 November 13

Malik, Somare and Kiki sign border agreement in Port Moresby; entry into force November 26 1974. [bab]

1973 December 15

Kiki visited Jakarta for a week as Malik's guest. [bab]

1974 June 02-06

Kiki, Malik and Australian Embassy staff met in Jakarta; Papua New Guinea to open consulate general in Jakarta. [bab]

1974 June or July

First Madang meeting between OPM representatives and Sir Maori Kiki. [bab]

1974 July 27-30

Maori Kiki visits Jakarta, talks with Malik and Soeharto. [bab]

1974 August

Second Madang meeting between OPM representatives and Sir Maori Kiki. [bab]

1974 August 14

A telephone link was opened between Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. [bab]

1974 September 03-06

Kiki visits Irian Jaya. [bab]

1974 November 05-08

Maori Kiki visits Jakarta, speaks with Minister for Defence and Security, General M. Panggabean, Foreign Affairs staff and Minister for Home Affairs, Amir Machmud. [bab]

1974 November 16-23

Tei Abal, leader of Papua New Guinea opposition, and associates, visit Jakarta at Malik's invitation; met with Soeharto. [bab]

1974 November 26

Border agreement signed in Canberra between Indonesia's Ambassador Hertasning, Australia's Foreign Minister Don Willessee and Papua New Guinea's High Commissioner, Oala Oala Rarua. [bab]

1974 December

Serui statement made calling for independence of WP and a re-unification of the island of New Guinea (B&L 1988: 89) [sek]

1974 December 06

Foreign Minister Sir Maori Kiki presented a statement to Papua New Guinea House of Assembly outlining the policy of 'universalism'. [bab]

1975 January 25

Military command of Irian Jaya transferred from Kisrad Sutrisno to Brig.Gen. Imam Munandar. [bab]

1975 February 06

Six West Papuans who distributed a declaration calling on Indonesian troops to leave the province and allow Irian Jaya to become an independent state were arrested in Serui [Ch. Mirino died, Sem Menami Satya, Petrus Muabuay, Anton Tewa and two others, now free]. [bab]

1975 March 31

Brib.Gen. Sutran became Acting Governor and replaced Acub Zainal after he was shown to have engaged in an extravagant building programme. [bab]

1975 May

Papua New Guinea Cabinet appointed Anthony Siaguru as first permanent head of Department of Defence, Foreign Relations and Trade. [bab]

1975 July 01

The Provisional Government of West Papua opened an official information and co-ordination office in Dakar, Senagal, with Ben Tanggahma as Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government. [bab]

1975 August 12

Sutran installed as Governor of Irian Jaya. [bab]

1975 September 01-02

Seth Rumkorem allegedly travelled to Port Moresby to tally to Papua New Guinea authorities. [bab]

1975 September 10

Suharto installed Rudjito, Indonesian Consul-General to Papua New Guinea, as Ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1975 September 16

Papua New Guinea gained independence. [bab]

1975 September / October (?)

Two Irianese students who had illegally crossed the border were handed back to Indonesian forces by Papua New Guinea forces, reportedly they were shot by Indonesian authorities. [bab]

1975 December

Indonesian troops land in East Timor. [bab]

1975 December 08

Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission Chairman, Bernard Narakobi urged Papua New Guinea to beware of Indonesian imperialism. [bab]


Border development proposals for Papua New Guinea border area submitted. Border road from Green River to Amanab commenced by Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Public Works commences road from Vanimo to Bewani. [bab]

1976 February 20

Somare stated the government's opposition to the rebels and its determination to prosecute them and deport Irianese sympathisers of the OPM in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 February 22

Kiki warns Irianese rebels to stay out of Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 February 23

100 Papua New Guinea students protested outside government offices and the Indonesian Embassy against Indonesian intervention in East Timor; Adam Malik complained of the students' actions. [bab]

1976 February 28

Sutopo Juwono admitted that it was proving difficult to crush Rumkorem's movement. [bab]

1976 February

Dutch branch of Revolutionary Provincial Government of West Papua claimed that 5,000 Indonesian troops had launched an offensive on the border, with the collusion of the Pacific Islands Regiment, killing 1605 villagers. [bab]

1976 March

De facto faction of OPM formed when Jacob Prai defected from Seth Rumkorem. Headquarters at Markas Pemka; Marthin Tabu in charge of Tepenal. [bab]

1976 July (early)

51 OPM supporters fled across the border to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 July

Sir Maori Kiki undertook to investigate the matter of Irianese citizenship by a Citizenship Advisory Committee. [bab]

1976 October 06

Soeharto met with Diro and asked that movements of anti-Indonesian rebels along the border be monitored. [bab]

1976 December

Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Brigadier General Roejito sought to gauge Papua New Guinea feeling regarding repatriation of Irianese in Papua New Guinea Debate in Papua New Guinea parliament over Papua New Guinea's relationship with Indonesia. [bab]

1976 December 07

Somare assured Papua New Guinea that there was no deal between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia to repatriate 500 Irianese refugees, as had been stated by Antara. [bab]

1976 December 14

Sir Maori Kiki announced that on the advice of the Citizenship Advisory Committee, 157 of the Irianese refugees in Papua New Guinea would be granted citizenship. [bab]

1976 December 29

16 year old Martin Giyai-Hembring, a stowaway from Irian Jaya to Papua New Guinea, was ordered to return to Jayapura. [bab]

1976 December 30

Seth Rumkorem flown to Port Moresby for government talks; this was criticised by the Indonesian Embassy. [bab]


Indonesian national election. [sek]


Operasi Kikis by General Imam Munander (Osborne 1985: 145). [sek]


War in Wamena (Osborne 1985: 4-5, 67-72) Reinhardt, Denis 1977. Nation Review. 21 September. (B&L 1988: 121-4; 119-124) [sek]


Yeret Wayoi of Papenal attacks TPN members at a sago-gathering places called Suhampa on the PNG side of the border (Osborne 1985: 65). By 1981, Wayoi was receiving protection from Indonesia ((Osborne 1985: 73) [sek]

1977 (?)

Jacob Prai breaks from Rumkorem's TPN to form Pemka (Pemulihan Keadilan) and Papenal (Pasukan Pembebasan Nasional) (Osborne 1985: 63, 64) [sek]

1977 January 10-16

Somare visited Jakarta; talks include possibility of Malaysia-type border patrols; joint communique issued, stating that Papua New Guinea recognised East Timor as an internal issue for Indonesia; that both Indonesia and Papua New Guinea would prevent the use of their territory for launching any terrorist attacks against the other country. [bab]

1977 January 13

Further speculation that Somare and Malik were to do a deal to repatriate 500 West Papuan rebels. Somare denied these reports, but Malik was quoted in the New Standard on 13 January 1977 as saying that a deal had been made. Somare again denied the reports. [bab]

1977 February

The South Pacific News Service was established by Franz Marhaaen to publicise the OPM's demands. [bab]

1977 March

Six West Papuans from Serui arrested in 1975 tried; one died in Serui prison; others sentenced to six to eight years. 160 West Papuans received Papua New Guinea citizenship certificates [bab]

1977 March 18

According to OPM press release, the Papua New Guinea and Indonesian authorities met on this date to consider Indonesian troops crossing into Papua New Guinea territory to assist in Papua New Guinea 'pre-election mopping-up activities'. [bab]

1977 April

Rumkorem's followers and Revolutionary Provisional Government Ministers Amos Indey and Darius Maurey allegedly captured by Prai's forces and kept prisoner. [bab]

1977 April 07

About 12 local Indonesian officials hacked to death near Jayapura. [bab]

1977 April 07

OPM units attack military posts in Baliem (B&L: 67) [sek]

1977 April 13

Bernard Tanggahma at a press conference at The Hague claimed that 400,000 West Papuans 'had been liberated' recently. [bab]

1977 April 20-24

Police station at Paget 112km southwest of Jayapura raided; 4 police killed and 12 kidnapped; from 6 to 12 West Papuans killed in the fight. [bab]

1977 April 29

Post-Courier reported the contents of a letter dated March 13 1977 from New York, supposedly by Nicolaas Jouwe telling the Irianese community in Port Moresby that terrorism was the only option open for Irianese fighting for independence. [bab]

1977 May 490

West Papuans reported to have crossed border: 290 at Kwari (250 km north west of Daru), and 200 at Wawol, in Western Province. [bab]

1977 May

ABRI shoots a West Sepik villager inside the PNG border (Osborne 1988: 160). [sek]

1977 May

OV-10 Broncos dropped anti-personnel Daisy Cluster bombs near Ilaga (B&L 1988: 34). [sek]

1977 May (early)

Indonesian bombing of villages near Tembagapura. [bab]

1977 May (early)

Nicolaas Jouwe denied that he sent any letter threatening to use terrorism. [bab]

1977 May (late)

Reports that an Indonesian soldier had shot a Papua New Guinean citizen in West Sepik cause Somare to address the nation appealing to people not to be alarmed by such reports A report from Jakarta suggests that all fighting in the Baliem Valley stemmed from intertribal causes and was the result of a football match brawl; at least 250 of the Baliem valley people, mostly Danis, had been killed in the fighting Two Indonesians captured across the Papua New Guinea border. [bab]

1977 May 09

Seth Rumkorem and his followers caught by members of an opposing OPM faction; Rumkorem escaped one week later, seen at Wutung. [bab]

1977 May 18

The scheduled Papua New Guinea National Border Committee meeting was postponed due to border clashes between OPM factions. [bab]

1977 May 28

About 60 cross to Bewani, West Sepik, from Irian Jaya. [bab]

1977 May 29

Through Somare's intervention, Tom Unwin of the UN Development Fund is sent to Western Province as UNHCR representative. [bab]

1977 May 30

Post-Courier reported that a Papua New Guinea villager at Wainda was shot dead by Indonesian troops; not confirmed by government. [bab]

1977 May 31

Papua New Guinea National Border Committee met to discuss Irianese rebels and refugees. [bab]

1977 June (early)

Tom Unwin said the 204 Irianese at Suki did not wish to be repatriated. [bab]

1977 June 01

Somare holds press conference on border situation. All of the refugees at Suki and Bensbach (officially numbered at 218, not the 490 previously reported) to be voluntarily returned. [bab]

1977 June 03

About 60 West Irianese received citizenship. [bab]

1977 June 07

Kiki concerned at fighting in Irian Jaya; seeks guarantee that Indonesia would not punish border crossers if repatriated; asked for an explanation for the border crossings; statement issued by Foreign Affairs Secretary and Chairman of the National Border Committee, Tony Siaguru. [bab]

1977 June 08

92 Irianese villagers had crossed into West Sepik; 46 Irianese in Lake Murray area. [bab]

1977 June 10

Malik stated that border crossers would not be harmed if they had not committed crimes. [bab]

1977 June 14

Malik told Kiki that Indonesia would not tolerate the exploitation of tribal clashes for political purposes, and that Irian Jaya was Indonesia's internal affair; Refugees repatriated. [bab]

1977 June 18

Attack on a police post at Akimuga [sek]

1977 July

Freeport's pipe blown up. [sek]

1977 July

Rift between Seth Rumkorem and Jacob Prai (B&L 1988: 64) [sek]

1977 July 23

OPM attack on Freeport installation, causing US$1 million in damage. In response, Indonesian forces bombed Timika, Nabi and other villages. [bab]

1977 August

OPM attack on Australian army plane mapping near Wamena. Papua New Guinea Defence Force Commander-in-Chief Diro met with Rumkorem at Wutung and Wewak. [bab]

1977 August 30

OPM literature circulated at South Pacific Forum meeting in Port Moresby. [bab]

1977 September

Denis Reinhardt reported that fighting since April may have killed 2000 Irianese and 345 Indonesians. [bab]

1977 September (early)

A Jayapura conference reached agreement between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea over the use of border passes, Antara reported. [bab]

1977 October

A University of Papua New Guinea professor, Brian Brogan, announced that an Australian JIO officer, Lindsay Burridge, of the High Commission in Port Moresby, had sought information from him concerning past and present Irianese sympathisers at University of Papua New Guinea; this precipitated a student demonstration against the High Commission. [bab]

1977 October (?)

OPM destroy an Indonesian military DC3. [bab]

1977 October ?7

Ten Irianese followers of Rumkorem jailed for 5 months for illegal border crossing. [bab]

1977 October 19

Seven Irianese repatriated. [bab]

1977 November

Defence Minister Louis Mona told Parliament that any West Irianese crossing into Papua New Guinea illegally would be jailed and deported, and that army patrols would be stepped up; Bulletin reporter David Bradbury interviews Jacob Prai in the border area. [bab]

1977 November 10

Somare urged OPM and Indonesia to negotiate. [bab]

1977 December

Talks reportedly held between Papua New Guinea, Australia and Indonesia over border problems between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [bab]

1977 December 24

Foreign Minister Olewale allowed Nicolaas Jouwe into Papua New Guinea 'to show that Papua New Guinea is a free country'. [bab]


300 villagers flee to PNG after their houses are burned and villages strafed by aircraft (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]


Jacob Prai gains asylum in Sweden (Osborne 1985: 75). Elky Bemey takes over leadership of Pemka. [sek]


Papenal's Paniai headquarters established in Ekamonala. [sek]

1978 January 19

6 young West Papuan men were sentenced to 6 months jail for illegal entry. [bab]

1978 January 24

Jouwe left Papua New Guinea after talks with Olewale. [bab]

1978 January 27

Papua New Guinea refuses Indonesian Embassy request to set up independent radio link with Jakarta and Jayapura. [bab]

1978 January 30

Major General Busiri Surjowinoto replaces Major-General Roedjito as Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 February (early)

200 West Papuan refugees remain in the border area in Western Province, requiring medical assistance. [bab]

1978 February (mid)

Maurey and Indey, Prai's followers, seek asylum in Papua New Guinea Indonesia offers asylum to Rumkorem. [bab]

1978 February 11

General Maraden Panggabean, Defence and Security Minister and ABRI Commander-in-Chief, reported that 750 West Papuans led by Martin Tabu had surrendered to Indonesian forces at Urania village on January 20. According to PangQabean, there were other Irianese rebels (most of whom were in Rumkorem's party) who were camped in Papua New Guinea, but their numbers were few. [bab]

1978 April 10

West Papuans in Holland name ministers in the de facto West Papuan government; ten are resident in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 April 14-15

Prai and Rumkorem were flown to Port Moresby to speak to Foreign Affairs Secretary Siaguru who warned the rebels to move their camps from West Sepik before they were burnt down. [bab]

1978 April 18

Indonesian Embassy in Papua New Guinea requested Papua New Guinea government to act against those who had been named as cabinet members of the de facto West Papuan Government, so that they would be required to reaffirm their loyalty to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 April 26

Indonesia asked Papua New Guinea to explain how two Australian journalists were able to visit a rebel camp based in West Sepik. [bab]

1978 May 01

Olewale suggested to the Indonesian government that the First Secretary (Information) at the Indonesian Embassy in Port Moresby, Mr. Jusbeth Siregar, be reposted, due to remarks by Siregar about Papua New Guinea's position with regard to talks between Siaguru and Prai and Rumkorem. [bab]

1978 May 08

Olewale was advised that Indonesian Ambassador Maj-Gen Busiri; Surjowinoto had reprimanded Siregar. [bab]

1978 May 13-21

Olewale visits Indonesia, including East Timor; Indonesia expressed doubts over Papua New Guinea's commitment to ousting rebels; a joint statement was issued pledging Papua New Guinea would take all measures against rebels using its territory to launch attacks on Indonesia. [bab]

1978 May 16

Indonesian officials belonging to a negotiating mission to tally to Martin Tabu kidnapped by rebels south of Jayapura; 2 killed, 7 others, including Col. Ismail, Intelligence Com. Lieut. Col. A. F. Admiral Fajar, and Rev. William Maloali, chairman of the Provincial Parliament, held hostage; later demand issued for release of six prisoners in Papua New Guinea held for illegal entry; and for Australia and Papua New Guinea to organise a Round Table Conference to free Irian Jaya from Indonesia. [bab]

1978 May 16

Kidnapping of high level military officers by Marthin Tabu (of the Pemka group?) (B&L 1988: 69) (Osborne 1985: 72) [sek]

1978 May 20

The Age reported that Papua New Guinea and Indonesia were planning joint military actions against OPM rebels. [bab]

1978 May 25

Kompas reported information from Ali Murtopo that some Irianese under Martin Tabu had on about 17 May taken some provincial government officials hostage. This was reported to be because food supplies had been delayed. The Age reported atrocities against Irianese at Freeport early June 1978 Merdeka reported that 1,500 people in Jayawijaya district had been killed in the past year. This was the first detailed newspaper report in the Jakarta press on Irian Jaya for over 6 months. [bab]

1978 June (late)

An Indonesian helicopter landed at Amanab, 20 km inside the Papua New Guinea border. [bab]

1978 June 07

Okuk accused the Papua New Guinea government of secretly allowing Indonesian troops to pursue guerillas across the border into Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 June 21

100 Indonesian soldiers were reported to have crossed 3km into Papua New Guinea to pursue rebels. [bab]

1978 June 26

Sir John Guise accused Indonesia of testing its 'expansionist design' on Papua New Guinea by sending troops into Papua New Guinea's territory; challenged Indonesia to state that this was not the case. [bab]

1978 June / July

Both Indonesian and Papua New Guinea troops stationed along a 150 km stretch on the northern part of the border in a separately commanded offensive against OPM; Operation Rausimkwik led by Lieut-Col. Tom Poang. [bab]

1978 July

The Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea spends a fortnight in discussion with Soeharto and Jakarta officials. The Jayapura provincial commander is recalled. [bab]

1978 July

The UNHCR representative, Robert Sampatkumar, visited border; Advised by West Papuans of Indonesian raids against Irianese villages; UN granted Papua New Guinea US$100,000 to aid refugees, and to build camp at Oksapmin, 100 km from the border. [bab]

1978 July (?)

The Jakarta press is banned from covering events in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1978 July (late)

Indonesian patrol razed the small Papua New Guinea village of Sawan on the border. [bab]

1978 July 05

Waigani intelligence officials state that they suspect Indonesian troops of launching bombing raids against border villages in the area south west of Wutung. [bab]

1978 July 23

Australian Ambassador to Indonesia, Tom Critchley, expressed Australia's concern over Indonesian military activities along the border. [bab]

1978 August 13

Tapenal troops seek assylum in PNG (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]

1978 August

Prai arrested in PNG (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]

1978 August 17

Discussion of a Matter of Public Importance - Government's Handling of the West Irian Border Issue - in Papua New Guinea parliament Col. Ismail released in exchange for food (according to the Indonesian authorities); weapons (according to Martin Tabu's courier). [bab]

1978 August 21

Papua New Guinea Government refused an Indonesian request to return OPM members Darius Maury and Amos Indey to Indonesia; Olewale feared that they would be executed, and requested assistance from the UNHCR to find a third country to provide them with a refuge; they had previously served a 6 month term for illegal entry, ending on August 20 1978; Maury and Indey held at Oksapmin refugee camp, West,Sepik 13 members of Rumkorem's faction crossed to Wutung to seek political asylum a further 126 Irianese crossed to Kamberatoro. [bab]

1978 August 23

Secret meeting between Lieut-Col. Tom Poang of Papua New Guinea Defence Force and OPM members and Air Niugini expatriate pilots at Smugglers Inn, Madang, to arrange an arms deal. Poang later stated he had merely tried to obtain intelligence of OPM operations. [bab]

1978 August 28

Another 50 West Papuans crossed to Yako, at least 30 of whom were seeking asylum [bab]

1978 September (late)

A further 3 Indonesian officials were seized when they went to negotiate the release of the hostages held by Martin Tabu. [bab]

1978 September 27

Jacob Prai and Otto Ondawame, both OPM members, and Papua New Guinea permissive resident, Nicholas Meset, captured in Vanimo. Frai and Ondawame sentenced to two months' imprisonment for illegal entry; Indonesian Embassy in Port Moresby pressured for them to be sent to Indonesia to stand trial for treason; letters in Papua New Guinea press call for political asylum for Prai and Ondawame. 500 Papua New Guinea troops stationed along the border. [bab]

1978 September 29

Meset sentenced for 2 months for helping to conceal Prai and Ondawame. [bab]

1978 October 10

Prai and Ondawame seek UN help to resettle in a third country. [bab]

1978 November

Pangu-PPP split; Pangu-United make a government. Papua New Guinea requests UNHCR to find third country for Prai and Ondawame. Indonesian Defence Minister General Mohammad Yusuf called for an end to enforcing the wearing of shorts and not penis gourds (introduction of the so-called 'Smiling Policy'). [bab]

1978 November 12

Papua New Guinea Government shelved citizenship applications from West Papuan refugees, because, according to Foreign Minister Olewale, former West Irianese who had been granted citizenship were abusing the privilege; Warren Dutton MP said that it was unconstitutional not to consider applications from residents of 8 years' standing. [bab]

1978 December 11-14

Mochtar Kusumaatmadja visited Port Moresby, confirming the 'smiling policy' in Irian Jaya; Utula Samana, provincial planner for Morobe, protested against Mochtar's arrival at Lae airport; Indonesia and Papua New Guinea agreed to take measures to control pollution in the Fly River area. [bab]

1979 January 31

Okuk calls on the Papua New Guinea government to formulate clear policy on Irianese refugees. [bab]

1979 February 26

Somare told Parliament that Indonesia was not expansionist in reply to comments about a document allegedly prepared by Indonesian military to take over Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 March 04

Prai, Ondawame, Maury, Indey and Meset fly from Port Moresby to Sweden where they had been granted refuge. The UNHCR still seeking refuge for 103 other refugees. [bab]

1979 March 05

Preliminary talks held in Port Moresby to determine new border agreement to replace the 1973 agreement. A deportation order had been served on Meset for harbouring Prai and Ondawame (?). [bab]

1979 April (mid)

Police and Defence Force border patrols increased after Yako raid. [bab]

1979 April 02

A group of 15 armed West Papuans crossed the border and attacked the Yako refugee camp taking 2 West Papuan border crossers with them. [bab]

1979 April 04

Two Dutch citizens, Max Ireeuw and Tan Sek Tai, both formerly of Irian Jaya, accused of assisting OPM and deported from Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 April 09

Vanimo District court sentenced 2 West Papuan border crossers, Ennos Brunei and Francis Kosei, to 4 months jail for illegal entry. Brunei was sentenced to a further 4 months for possessing an unregistered pistol. [bab]

1979 April 25

A West Papuan border crosser, Yan Nusi, of Serui sentenced to 3 months for illegal crossing. [bab]

1979 June 04-06

Soeharto visits Papua New Guinea; communique issued that a second border treaty will be signed; agreed to consultation over border development and Technical Cooperation Agreement signed by Panggabean and Olewale. [bab]

1979 June

145 West Papuan refugees transferred to Wabo camp from Yako, Oksapmin, Madang and Weam.

1979 July

ALP National Conference called for a UN fact-finding mission to Irian Jaya to investigate alleged human rights violations; called on Australian Government to grant asylum to any OPM refugees who sought it under UN supervision. [bab]

1979 July 28

A Papua New Guinea delegation of 14 attended the second round of talks in Jakarta to revise the Border Agreement. [bab]

1979 August 10

Australian Defence Minister Killen advised the Papua New Guinea Government to begin joint border patrols with Indonesia. [bab]

1979 August 29

Elezier Bonay, former governor of Irian Jaya, seeks political asylum in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 October (mid)

Third round of border treaty negotiations presented a draft treaty in Jakarta; Papua New Guinea delegation led by Siaguru; Indonesian delegation led by Soedarsono. [bab]

1979 November (late)

18 West Papuan youths deported when they were found not to be genuine refugees. [bab]

1979 November (mid)

A memorandum of understanding to improve radio communications and Jayapura-Vanimo telephone was signed by the Indonesian Ambassador Maj-Gen Busiri Surjowinoto and Acting Secretary for Transport and Civil Aviation, John Gaius. [bab]

1979 December 12

A West Papuan, named Ibo, with two Papua New Guinea wives was deported, after 7 years' residence in Papua New Guinea for failing to obey a Foreign Affairs and Trade order to return voluntarily to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1979 December 13

6 West Papuans deported after a fight at Wabo camp; 2 jailed for 3 months in Jayapura, others sent back to their homes. [bab]

1979 December 17

New border agreement signed by Olewale and Mochtar; Olewale visited Indonesia and reached an agreement with Mochtar on the return of border crossers illegally crossing into Papua New Guinea for economic reasons. [bab]

1979 March, April or May

Nyaro appointed by Port Moresby OPM leaders as Prai's successor in the de facto government. [bab]


Major-General C. I. Santoso commander of WP. Initiates Operasi Sapu Bersih (B&L 1988: 70-1) [sek]

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