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Chronology of Papua (Irian Jaya, West Papua, ...)

Compiled by Michael Cookson
(Last modified – January 6, 2004)

This chronology has been created for distribution via the Papuaweb research project and records events focussed on the post World War II period in Papua. It is the hope of the project staff that readers will make authoritative additions to this chronology by elaborating on existing entries and contributing new entries to make the chronology more comprehensive. To ensure that the chronology remains as accurate as possible additions should be supported by any form of available documentation (or some other way to verify dates and events through news reports, etc). Please send comments or additional entries to infopapuaweb.org.

This chronology has been compiled from the following sources which are indicated by an abbreviation in square brackets. This has been done in an effort to maintain the veracity of the chronology:

      Ballard (notes for review articles in Contemporary Pacific) – [cb]
      Blaskett 1989 (PhD Dissertation)- [bab]
      Dinnissen illustrated chronology - [pd]
      Elder 2002 (notes on news sources in PNG about Papua) - [pe]
      Glazebrook 2001 (PhD Dissertation) - [dja]
      GOI statements - [goi]
      Kirksey 2001 (notes on Kabar-Irian) - [sek]
      Saltford 2000 (PhD Dissertation) - [jfs]
      Timmer (notes and timelines on Bird's Head and Bintuni Bay area) - [jt]
      UN (Dept. of Public Information) on UNTEA - [un].

Eventually all the events in this list may be assigned keywords which will make it possible to extract chronologies of specific themes. The selection of keywords for these thematic chronologies will include reference to the following: major geographic regions; tribal groups (linked to linguistic regions); a history of (new) contacts; expeditions; political developments (transfer of territories, government legislation, government policy, boundaries of government, etc); violence (including cases of human rights abuses); military operations; dates of significance to religious institutions; and health (epidemics, diseases, famine). This is a provisional list and we welcome contributions to the chronology and suggestions for other keyword categories.


* * * * *

Pre 1945

1581-2

Migel Rojo de Brito visits the Raja Ampat Islands, the MacCluer/Bintuni Gulf, and North Seram in a search for gold. [jt]

1605

VOC begins sending expeditions to the Moluccas and the so-called Papuan Islands. [jt]

1623

Jan Carstensz travels from Aru to West New Guinea to find a passage north to the Pacific Ocean. He glimpses snow-caps on what he believed to be the mountainous interior of Seram. [jt]

1642

Tasman explores the western shores of West New Guinea for the VOC on his voyage back from New Zealand. [pd]

1654

Captain Frederik Gommersdorp lands at Rumbati at the Onin Peninsula. Perhaps Antony Adriaansz. Multum was there before because upon his return to Banda in 1656, Multum told that he had lived on the Karas Islands at south coast of the Onin Peninsula for three years. [jt]

1660

The Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) recognises the sultan of Tidore’s (nominal) sovereignty over the island of New Guinea and thus gains the rights to collect labour and forest products from West New Guinea. [jt]

1662

Willem Buis, together with Multum, travels to Onin to collect manpower. [jt]

1663

Council of Justice, Nicolaes Vinck does a preliminary survey of the north and south coast of what later is called the MacCluer Gulf. He lands at Goras, Sekar, and Patipi at the Onin Peninsula. [jt]

1678

Captain Johannes Keyts travels with three ships to Onin, visits the Arguni Bay and places VOC flags at Fatagar and Kilbati. [jt]

1700

William Dampier lands at the Karas Islands, travels around the island of Salawati and maps the strait between the islands of Batanta and Waigeo. [jt]

1730

Corporal Wiggers joins a hongi raid to Onin during which 178 people were captured, 53 are killed and three villages are burned. [jt]

1791

Captain John MacCluer maps the MacCluer Gulf. [jt]

1814

The sultans of Ternate and Tidore agree that the west coast of New Guinea falls under sovereign authority of the sultan of Tidore, which marks the first formal Dutch claim on this land. [jt]

1824 March 17

Treaty of London in which the Dutch and the British agree upon division of the Indies. The Dutch get Sumatra, Java, Maluku, West New Guinea, and the British get Malaya and Singapora and retain an interest in North Borneo. [pd]

1828

Triton expedition to New Guinea leads to the construction of the fortress Du Bus and the first Dutch settlement, Merkusoord, in the Triton Bay. Within a few months the fortress and the settlement are attacked by local people and after eight years of suffering from diseases and regular confrontation with the local people, the Dutch left the place in 1836. [jt]

1848

Governor-General J.J. Rochussen decides that the 141st meridian marks the eastern border of Netherlands New Guinea. D.J. van den Dungen Gronovius travels around the coast to place escutcheons. Leading a large hongi fleet, he also travels along the north and south coast of the Kepala Burung in 1849. [jt]

1854

Dutch government restricts hongi raids, fully banning them six or seven years later. [jt]

1855

Beginning of missionisation of West New Guinea. The German missionaries Carl W. Ottow and Johann G. Geissler land on the island of Mansinam in Cenderawasih Bay. [jt]

1858

Lieutenant F.R. Toewater goes on a mission with the vessel ‘Phoenix’ to punish the villagers of Kapitoear and Sisir at the south coast of Onin who are suspected of resistance and theft to the disadvantage of VOC traders. [jt]

1863

Dr H.A. Bernstein collects material culture for the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. He visits the islands of Batanta, Salawati, Doom, Ram, and Tjiof and Remu and Cape Sele at the mainland. [jt]

1865

First official inauguration of an Arguni raja at Tidore. [jt]

1871

Government commissioner P. van der Crab and botanist J.E. Teysmann travel to Onin and into the MacCluer Gulf. Van der Crab reports that many traders from Seram are active in the Bintuni Bay. [jt]

1872

Former Resident J.C. Coorengel travels into the MacCluer Gulf and visits rajas along the coasts of Bintuni Bay (Bergh 1964a: 32).

1872

The botanists Odoardo Beccari and Luigi d’Albertis visit the Arfak mountains in the north-east of the Kepala Burung. [jt]

1873

The pearler Captain Edwin Redlich on the brig ‘Franz’ sends his first mate and seventeen men off in two small boats at the south-west coast of the Kepala Burung on 12 November. In December, the raja of Salawati reports to Redlich that they had been killed and eaten by people on the Klabra River. [jt]

1873

The naturalist Adolf Bernard Meyer claims to be the first to have crossed the isthmus that connects the Kepala Burung with Kowiai and Onin. [jt]

1884

The British and German governments acknowledge the 141st meridian east as the western boundary of their possessions, accepting the Dutch assertions of 1828. [jt]

1888

Former Resident of Ternate, F.S.A. de Clerq travels with the ‘Java’ to West New Guinea and visits the south coast of Bintuni Bay. [jt]

1898

Establishment of government stations in Manokwari and Fak-fak. [jt]

1901

Inspector P.E. Moolenburgh crosses the isthmus that connects the Kepala Burung with Kowiai and Onin. [jt]

1902-3

The linguist J.S.A. van Dissel organises three trips across the Onin Peninsula/ [jt]

1902-5

J.W. van Hille, Inspector of Fak-fak and first government official of western West New Guinea, explores (partly together with the commander of the vessel ‘Jawa’, J.N.W. Kuyl) the north coast of the MacCluer Gulf. [jt]

1909

Assistant-Resident F.H. Dumas at Fak-fak appoints two Onin leaders to serve the government at Yahadian (Kais River) and Segei (presently Inanwatan) with a platoon of armed police men at their disposal. [jt]

1910

Revolt in Bira (now Inanwatan). [jt]

1911

Missionary H.D. Starrenburg of the Utrechtse Zendingsvereniging travels through the MacCluer Gulf and the Bintuni Bay to Fak-fak. [jt]

1911

Missionary J. van Muijlwijk settles at Fak-fak to co-ordinate missionary activities in west West New Guinea. [jt]

1916

The Utrechtse Zendingsvereniging missionaries D.C.A. Bout and J. Wetstein travel to Bintuni with the vessel ‘Jong-Holland’. [jt]

1927

Construction of the Boven Digul internment camp for Indonesian nationalists. [jt]

1936

Beginning of oil exploration in the MacCluer Gulf area with Babo as base-camp. Oil was also found near Klamono (Western Kepala Burung), followed by Mogoi in 1939 and Wasian in 1941, both in the east of the Kepala Burung). [jt]

1937

The Officer in Charge for the Sorong region, S. van der Goot, explores the northern Kepala Burung and travels across the Kladuk River to the Klawilis Rivier down to the south coast. Van der Goot returns to the area with the Denison-Crockett expedition to Sainkeduk (where the Crockett family stayed). [jt]

1937

Establishment of the Central Kepala Burung garrison in Mefkadjim (Ayamaru) under command of the military captain, G.F. van Duin as of March. [jt]

1938

‘Discovery’ of the Baliem Valley by the Richard Archbold expedition. [jt]

1939

S. van der Goot and Inspector Meylinck travel from Amberbaken at the north coast of the Kepala Burung to Ayamaru and from there to the west coast. During this trip Meylinck is killed by a shot from his own gun. [jt]

1939

Successful strike of oil in Mogoi, near Bintuni. [jt]

1940 May 15

Netherlands Indies government declares a state of siege, and places the Indies on a wartime footing. [jt]

1941

Successful strike of oil in Wasian, near Bintuni. [jt]

1942-5

Occupation of most of the northern parts of West New Guinea by Japanese troops. The head of the Ayamaru sub-division, W.F. van den Berg, manages to stay aloof from the Japanese. In the North-western Kepala Burung, Sergeant M. Kokkelink and Sergeant-Major P.P. de Kock, successfully hide despite an unremitting Japanese hunt. [jt]

1944 April 22

Allied forces retake Hollandia [pd]

1944 May 9

Japanese commanders surrender and withdraw from West New Guinea. A Dutch appeal to offer resistance to the Japanese is followed by many local leaders throughout West New Guinea. In a couple of months the people chase away or kill all the Japanese in their regions. [jt]

1944 June 4

Japanese start a counterattack on Biak and the islands is finally cleared from Japanese on 8 September [pd]

1945

Proclamation of independence of Indonesia by Sukarno and Mohammed Hatta on 17 August. [jt]

1945-1949

1945 August 17

Following the Japanese surrender at the end of the Second World War, Sukarno proclaims the inauguration of the Republic of Indonesia. Soon afterwards, British forces arrive to assume control until the Dutch return. [jfs]

1945 August 23

Sukarno declares a policy of a united Indonesia, 'From Sabang to Merauke'. [bab]

1946 October

Conference at Pangkalpinang, Bangka, attended by Dutch and Indonesian minority groups supportive of Dutch, to discuss possible refuge areas for Eurasians after Indonesian independence. West New Guinea was considered as one area. [bab]

1946 November 15

Linggadjati Agreement signed between the Dutch and representatives of the Indonesian Republic. Under the agreement, the republicans have sovereignty over Java, Madura and Sumatra while the Dutch retain sovereignty over the rest of the Netherlands East Indies including West New Guinea. Both sides pledge to cooperate to create a federal United States of Indonesia by 1 January 1949 in which the Indonesian Republic and the Dutch-controlled territories would be sovereign states with the Dutch queen as head. [jfs]

1946 November 15

Linggadjati Agreement signed, to provide for the establishment of the United States of Indonesia by January 1949. [bab]

1947 July 20

Dutch. launch a 'police action' involving 100,000 troops. They make substantial territorial gains in Java and Sumatra. However there is strong international condemnation of the Dutch action in the UN and elsewhere. [jfs]

1947 August 04

Dutch agree to a ceasefire. [jfs]

1947 August 26

U.S.A. proposes the Good Offices Committee. [bab]

1948 January

Dutch and Indonesians sign the Renville agreement recognising as a ceasefire line the furthest advance of Dutch forces into Republican territory. [jfs]

1948 September

PKI uprising in Madiun against Republican government is put down. [jfs]

1948 December 18

Dutch launch second 'police action'. While the Dutch make further military gains, the Indonesian army is not destroyed and international protest against the Netherlands grows. [jfs]

1948 December 19

Second Dutch Police Action. [bab]

1949 (late)

New government elected in Australia under Menzies; Menzies in favour of continued Dutch control of West New Guinea. [bab]

1949 July

The Netherlands incorporates the sultanate of Tidore which includes West New Guinea as directly-ruled Dutch territory. [bab]

1949 August 11

Under pressure from the US, the Dutch agree to another ceasefire. [jfs]

1949 August 23- November 2

Round table conference between the Dutch and Indonesians held at The Hague. Both sides agree to the establishment of a Republic of the United States of Indonesia (LTSI) with the Dutch queen as titular head, and Sukarno as President. [jfs]

1949 October

Lucas Rumkorem, Corinus Kery and Julianus Tarumaselly form a secret Independent Indonesian Party at Bosnik, Biak. [bab]

1949 November 27

The Hague Agreement. The Netherlands cedes sovereignty of the Netherlands East Indies to the Indonesian Republic, but keeps West New Guinea. The Netherlands together with the new Republic establish a Netherlands-Indonesian Union which is intended to work for the common interest. It is agreed that the status of West New Guinea will be decided in further talks to take place within a year. [jfs]

1949 December 27

Round Table Conference agreements reached. [bab]

1949 December 29

Dutch Government issued a Decree for the Administrative Regulation of New Guinea, establishing Dutch New Guinea as a separate territory. [bab]

1950-1959

1950 (mid)

The non-governmental Badan Perjuangan Irian (Irian Struggle Body) formed. [bab]

1950 March 09

Australian Foreign Minister Spender stressed the importance of New Guinea to Australian defence. [bab]

1950 April

Netherlands-Indonesian Union Conference held at Jakarta; the West New Guinea issue is to be decided later in 1950. [bab]

1950 August

Sukarno announces the formation of the unitary Indonesian Republic to replace the Indonesian Republic of the USI. [jfs]

1950 August 17

Sukarno puts West Irian in a prominent position in his Independence Day speech. [bab]

1950 August 29

Spender denies the Indonesian claim to West New Guinea [bab]

1950 September

The Netherlands and Indonesian delegations in the Ad Hoc Committee on West New Guinea submit separate reports to the United Nations. [bab]

1950 December

Netherlands-Indonesian Union talks at The Hague fail to resolve the question of West New Guinea's final status. [jfs]

1950 December 04

Netherlands-Indonesian Union Conference at The Hague; Netherlands demands that West New Guinea be allowed to exercise its future self-determination [bab]

1951 December

Netherlands-Indonesian Union Conference at The Hague.

1952 January

Dutch constitution amended to include West New Guinea. [jfs]

1952 January

Netherlands Constitution amended to include West New Guinea. [bab]

1953 July

Netherlands-Australian Co-operative Agreement signed. [bab]

1953 December

An Irian Bureau was established as part of the PM's office. [bab]

1954 August

Sunario-Luns Protocol, to slightly modify Round Table Conference agreements; no progress made on West New Guinea issue. [bab]

1954 November

Some Indonesian military incursions of a limited nature take place on fringe of West New Guinea. [bab]

1954 November 23- December 01

Eleven meetings of the First Committee of the United Nations regarding West New Guinea. [bab]

1954 November 30

UNGA rejects an Indonesian sponsored resolution on West New Guinea. [jfs]

1954 November 30

United Nations rejects Indonesian claims to West New Guinea. [bab]

1955 February

West Irian Liberators' Front established in Semarang. [bab]

1955 April 19-24

Asia-Africa Conference, Bandung. [bab]

1955 September 29

United Nations Committee discussion concerning the West New Guinea dispute; not raised at the 10th Assembly due to the forthcoming Netherlands-Indonesian talks. [bab]

1955 December

Dutch/Indonesian talks at The Hague fail to resolve their dispute over West New Guinea's future status. [jfs]

1955 December 10

Indonesia and the Netherlands resumed negotiations at The Hague. No progress was made on the West New Guinea issue as each side maintained its former position. [bab]

1956 January 07

Indonesia broke off negotiations when threatened by Moslem parties' opposition to talks. [bab]

1956 February

Further Dutch/Indonesian talks held in Geneva fail to resolve the West New Guinea dispute. [jfs]

1956 February 05

Indonesians and Dutch agreed to exchange prisoners. [bab]

1956 February 07-11

New talks held in Geneva; stalled on Indonesian claim that the Round Table Conference had already given West New Guinea to Indonesia. [bab]

1956 February 13

Burhanuddin Cabinet announced unilateral dissolution o the Netherlands-Indonesian Union. Financial agreements under the Round Table Conference abrogated. [bab]

1956 February 13

Indonesian government announces that it is unilaterally dissolving the Netherlands-Indonesian Union. [jfs]

1956 April 21

Indonesian parliament revokes the 1949 Hague Agreement. [jfs]

1956 August 16

Indonesia provides for an autonomous provincial government of West Irian, based in Tidore. [bab]

1956 October

UNGA rejects Indonesian sponsored resolution on West New Guinea. [jfs]

1956 October 08

Indonesia again requests discussion of the West New Guinea dispute at the United Nations; backed by fifteen countries. [bab]

1957 January

A petition signed by 400 Dutch citizens living in Indonesia is sent to the Dutch States-General calling for a rapid negotiated settlement of the West New Guinea dispute. [jfs]

1957 August

Indonesia backed by twenty other nations requests discussion of the West New Guinea question at the United Nations. 200 Papuans and 10 Dutch officials reported killed in an incident near Enarotali. [bab]

1957 November 06

Canberra and The Hague issue a joint statement on future cooperation in the development of both sides of New Guinea. [jfs]

1957 November 29

The UNGA votes again not to adopt an Indonesian sponsored resolution on West New Guinea. [jfs]

1957 November 29

United Nations rejects Indonesia's claims to West New Guinea. [bab]

1957 November 6

Joint Australian-Netherlands Agreement on the future of West New Guinea. [bab]

1957 December

Central Action Committee for the Liberation of West Irian established by Indonesia. [bab]

1957 December 02

Indonesian nationwide 24-hour strike to protest against Dutch retention of West New Guinea. [bab]

1957 December 02

National twenty‑four hour strike takes place in Indonesia protest at Dutch control of West New Guinea. [jfs]

1957 December 06

Dutch nationals living in Indonesia required to leave.

1957 December 06

Most of the 50,000 Dutch nationals living in Indonesia told to leave the country by the authorities. [jfs]

1958

A series of (US backed) regional rebellions break out in Sumatra and the Celebes against the central government in Jakarta. Government forces succeed in ending most of the rebellions by the end of 1958. [jfs]

1958 January

John Kerr proposes a Melanesian Federation consisting of Papua, New Guinea and the Solomons. National Front for the Liberation of West Irian set up by Nasution and the Army (lasted until 1960). [bab]

1958 October

Conference on Australian-Netherlands joint statement of 1957, held in Canberra. [bab]

1959

Elected regional councils begin to be set up by the Dutch in West New Guinea. [jfs]

1959 February 15

Casey-Subandrio Joint Statement. [bab]

1959 August 17

Sukarno's Independence Day speech outlining Guided Democracy. [bab]

1960-1969

1960

Australia begins aerial survey of the border region. [bab]

1960 (late)

Malaya's Tunku Abdul Rahman tries to mediate between Indonesia and The Netherlands and fails. [bab]

1960 March 03-09

Australia-Netherlands conference held in Hollandia. [bab]

1960 August

Diplomatic ties with the Netherlands severed by Indonesia; Parna (National Party) established in West New Guinea; Pro-Dutch PVP(Democratic People's Party) formed. Other parties follow. [bab]

1960 August

Dutch embassy in Jakarta closes and official Dutch/Indonesian diplomatic ties are severed. [jfs]

1961 January

John F Kennedy becomes US President. [jfs]

1961 January

Kennedy promises to end Soviet aid and intervention in Indonesia; By this date, 8 political parties had been established in West New Guinea: Democratic People's Party; National Party; New Guinea Unity Party; Papuan Youth Party; Unity Party of New Guinea; Strength through Unity Party; People's Party; and Union of Christians and Islamists. [bab]

1961 February

Elections are held for 16 members of the West New Guinea Council. A further 12 are selected by the Dutch for areas considered not yet ready for meaningful elections. [jfs]

1961 February

National elections to West New Guinea's New Guinea Council held. West New Guineans gain 22 out of the 28 seats. [bab]

1961 April

Nasution visits Australia. [bab]

1961 April 05

Inauguration of the New Guinea Council; a Papua and New Guinea contingent, including John Guise, attended the inauguration. [bab]

1961 April 05

Inauguration of the West New Guinea Council. Britain and Australia send representatives, the US does not. [jfs]

1961 September

A number of armed Indonesian infiltrators are rounded up by Dutch forces and local Papuans. [jfs]

1961 September 26

Dutch Foreign Minister Luns presents a proposal to the UNGA on West New Guinea's future. The 'Luns Plan' proposes an end to Dutch sovereignty and the establishment of a UN administration in West New Guinea to supervise and organise a plebiscite to decide the territory's final status. [jfs]

1961 September 27

Netherlands Foreign Minister Luns proposes a plan for UN administration of West New Guinea. [bab]

1961 November (late)

UN dismisses the Luns plan. [bab]

1961 November 24

UNGA votes on a Dutch backed 'compromise' proposal on West New Guinea which recognises the Papuan's right to self-determination and calls for direct Dutch/Indonesian negotiations on the issue. Although it is supported by 53 votes to 41, it does not receive the necessary two-thirds majority to be passed. Another Indonesian-backed resolution which makes no mention of self-determination receives 41 votes for and 40 against. Following this the Dutch announce that they will not pursue the Luns plan in the UNGA any further. [jfs]

1961 December 01

Following a vote by the West New Guinea Council, the territory is renamed West Papua and given a national anthem and a flag which flies alongside the Dutch tricolour. In addition to these measures, the West New Guinea Council responds to the recent UN vote by passing a series of resolutions supporting the Luns Plan and calling on all nations to respect the right of the Papuans to self-determination [jfs]

1961 December 19

Sukarno declares TRIKORA (KOTI): (People's Triple Command for the Liberation of West Irian); calling for a total mobilisation to destroy Dutch-promoted Papuan state; to fly the Indonesian flag over West Irian and to prepare for war over West Irian. [bab]

1961 December 19

Sukarno issues the 'peoples' Triple Command' (TRIKORA) calling for the total mobilization of the Indonesian people to 'liberate' West Irian. [jfs]

1962

Onwards Defence buildup in Papua and New Guinea; increased border patrols and more administrative personnel. [bab]

1962 January

Serious defeat for Indonesian navy by the Dutch, off the coast of West New Guinea. [bab]

1962 January 15

'Battle of Arufura sea', Dutch/Indonesian naval clash off coast of West New Guinea results in the sinking' of an Indonesian naval patrol boat and the death of Commodore Yosophat Soedarso, Deputy Chief of the Indonesian naval staff. [jfs]

1962 January 17

Dutch and Indonesians accept a public invitation by U Thant for their New York representatives to meet with him to discuss the possibility of direct negotiations on West New Guinea. The talks stall on Indonesian insistence that any negotiations have to be based upon pre-condition that West New Guinea will eventually pass to their control. [jfs]

1962 February

President Kennedy's brother, US Attorney General Robert Kennedy visits Jakarta and The Hague in an effort to persuade both sides to begin direct negotiations. His visits are a success. [jfs]

1962 February 16

New Guinea Council informs Dutch government that the people of West New Guinea had chosen December 1 1970 as a target date for independence. [bab]

1962 March

Indonesian naval vessel, possibly a Russian built Skoryi destroyer, is sunk by the Dutch near the south coast of West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 March

Australians build an airstrip and defence base at Vanimo. [bab]

1962 March 11

On US instructions, U Thant appoints American diplomat Ellsworth Bunker as mediator for forthcoming Dutch/Indonesian talks. [jfs]

1962 March 20

Preliminary Dutch/Indonesian talks begin in Middelburg Virginia without pre-conditions. [jfs]

1962 March 24

Indonesians announce that they are withdrawing from the talks. [jfs]

1962 March 25

Indonesian aircraft attack a small Dutch naval vessel injuring three crew. [jfs]

1962 April 02

US inform Dutch of their proposals to resolve the West New Guinea dispute. Known as the 'Bunker plan' a key provision allows the transfer of the territory to Indonesia before any act of Papuan self-determination. Dutch Foreign Minister Luns condemns the plan while the Indonesians accept it as a basis for negotiation. [jfs]

1962 April 13

Twelve hour Dutch Cabinet meeting to discuss the Bunker plan. The Cabinet reluctantly agrees not to reject the plan outright. [jfs]

1962 April 14

Dutch Labour Party organises a 15,000 strong march in Amsterdam to protest at the dispatch of Dutch troop reinforcements to West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 May 25

UN makes public details of the Bunker plan. [jfs]

1962 May 26

Dutch agree to restart talks based upon the Bunker plan but on going disagreements between them and the Indonesians prevent talks from taking place. [jfs]

1962 June 29

Constantin Stavropoulos, the UN legal counsel advises Secretary General U Thant that 'there appears to emerge a strong presumption in favour of self-determination in situations such as that of West New Guinea on the basis of the wishes of the peoples of the territory concerned, irrespective of the legal stands or interests of other parties to the question'. [jfs]

1962 July

A number of border incidents had taken place by this date; a twenty-mile wide immunization belt was established on the Papua New Guinea side of the border. A Dutch and Australian joint surveying team erect border markers on the Fly River. [bab]

1962 July (early)

Dutch and Australian surveying teams set up border markers on Fly River following the Netherlands-Australia agreement over the marking of the Fly River border area. [bab]

1962 July 12

Talks reconvene. [jfs]

1962 July 28

Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio threatens to pull out of the talks but is persuaded to stay by President Kennedy. [jfs]

1962 July 30

Further talks held. [jfs]

1962 July/ August

The UN's Trusteeship Council produces a report on Australian New Guinea. Among its recommendations it calls for Australia to establish a national parliament in the territory of around 100 members to be elected on the basis of direct election by adult suffrage under a system of single member constituencies. [jfs]

1962 August 14

Talks suspended following the dropping of hundreds of Indonesian paratroops into West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 August 15

New York Agreement signed by Indonesia and the Netherlands. [jfs]

1962 August 15

New York Agreement whereby the Dutch cede control of West New Guinea to Indonesia. [bab]

1962 August 15

Signing at United Nations Headquarters of the Agreement concerning West New Guinea (West Irian) by representatives of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia. [un]

1962 August 17

Sukarno attributes the winning of West New Guinea to Guided Democracy. [bab]

1962 August 18 0001 GMT

Ceasefire in West New Guinea comes into force. [jfs]

1962 August 20

First UN military observers (LTNMO's) arrive under command of Swedish naval officer OW Melin. [jfs]

1962 August 21

Australia considers permissive residency requests from thousands of West New Guinea villagers. [bab]

1962 August 21

In a breech of the New York Agreement, 14 Indonesian troops landed near the West New Guinea capital Hollandia by submarine. [jfs]

1962 August 28

United Nations Military Observer team named to ensure execution of cease‑fire. [un]

1962 August 30

Pakistan agrees to provide 1,000 men as United Nations Security Force. [un]

1962 September

New Guinea Council reluctantly accepts the New York Agreement. [bab]

1962 September 01

Only nine of the twenty-eight West New Guinea Council members vote to endorse the New York Agreement. In a second vote, half the council walk out leaving the remaining fourteen to vote in favour by twelve to two. [jfs]

1962 September 07

Appointment of Jose Rolz‑Bennett United Nations Deputy Chef de Cabinet, as the representative of the Acting Secretary-General in the Territory. [un]

1962 September 19

Outbreak of cholera reported in Agats district. [un]

1962 September 19

'Papuan National Congress' organised by Herman Wajoi and Nicholas Tanggahma ends with a call for a plebiscite on West new Guinea to be held under UN auspices. [jfs]

1962 September 21

UNGA debate the New York Agreement and vote to pass a Dutch/Indonesian resolution on it by 89 votes to none with 14 abstentions. Dahomey later requests that its vote be changed to against. [jfs]

1962 September 21

Repatriation completed of all Indonesian troops not assigned to remain in West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 September 21

United Nations General Assembly approves Agreement of August 15 on the transfer of authority. [un]

1962 September 22

Jose Rolz‑Bennett arrives in Hollandia/Kotabaru. [un]

1962 September 24

United Nations Military Observer team withdraws on completion of mission in the Territory. [un]

1962 September 28

Dr. Pieter J Platteel, the last Dutch Governor of West New Guinea, leaves the territory. [jfs]

1962 October 01

UNTEA administration begins with Jose Rolz-Bennett as temporary administrator. [jfs]

1962 October 01

UNTEA take‑over from Netherlands Administration. Installation of Jose Rolz‑Bennett as Temporary Administrator. United Nations and Netherlands flags are raised side by side. [un]

1962 October 13

Cholera outbreak on south coast reaches epidemic proportions. [un]

1962 October 15

Amnesty granted to political prisoners. [un]

1962 October 24

Appointment of Dr. Djalal Abdoh (Iran) as UNTEA Administrator announced by Acting Secretary‑General. [un]

1962 October 29

Rear Admiral Reeser, Commander in Chief of the Dutch Armed Forces in the Territory, returns to the Netherlands. [un]

1962 October 7

Arrival in Sorong of main contingent of Pakistani troops serving in UNSP (14th Punjab). [un]

1962 November

Australia's defence expenditure increased. [bab]

1962 November 13

Arrival of Dr. Djalal Abdoh in Hollandia/Kotabaru. [un]

1962 November 15

Djalal Abdoh becomes UNTEA administrator. [jfs]

1962 November 15

Indonesian troops take over a stretch of road near Sorong and beat up several Papuan policemen. [jfs]

1962 November 16

Jose Rolz‑Bennett, Temporary Administrator, returns to United Nations Headquarters on completion of assignment. [un]

1962 November 20

Indonesian troops surround Sentani airstrip near Hollandia and hold several policemen at gunpoint preventing them from carrying out their assigned task of guarding the facility. [jfs]

1962 November 22

Last Dutch troops depart from West New Guinea. [jfs]

1962 November 22

Last unit of Dutch troops returns to Amsterdam. [un]

1962 November 23

Arrival of Deputy Administrator, Dr. Sudhir Sen (India). [un]

1962 November 30

Administrator invests officers of the Court of Justice. [un]

1962 December 01

Papuan nationalist march cancelled after being banned by UNTEA. [jfs]

1962 December 02

Biak Numfor Council draft a resolution calling for a free plebiscite in 1964 under UN auspices. The resolution also condemns UN plans to handover the territory to a 'ruthless colonial power'. [jfs]

1962 December 04

Members of the New Guinea Council take Oath of Office. [un]

1962 December 05

Administrator addresses concluding Session of the 1962 New Guinea Council. [un]

1962 December 10

Indonesian troops open fire on Papuan demonstrators in Merauke injuring two. [jfs]

1962 December 13

Indonesian troops launch a mortar attack on a police station in Sorong. One Papuan policeman is killed. [jfs]

1962 December 15

Shooting incident at Sorong involving Indonesian troops and Papuan police results in death of one Papuan police officer, and the accidental wounding of two Dutch bystanders. [un]

1962 December 18

Letter sent to all Indonesian police commissioners working with UNTEA from Van Diest the head of the police branch of the Indonesian mission to UNTEA. The confidential letter orders them to ensure that police under their command sign pro-Indonesian statements calling for the early departure of UNTEA and the abandonment of any act of self-determination. [jfs]

1962 December 24

Garuda Indonesian Airways take over service in the Territory from Dutch airline "de Kronduiff"'[un]

1962 December 27

Cholera cases decline sharply. [un]

1962 December 30

Major General A. Jani, Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Army, arrives in Hollandia/Kotabaru for three‑day visit. [un]

1962 December 31

Indonesian flag hoisted side by side with United Nations flag. (Dutch flag had been flying side by side with United Nations Flag from 1 October.)[un]

1963 (early)

Australian aerial photography of border area and survey of northern border region. [bab]

1963 January (mid)

A series of pro-Indonesian marches involving Papuans takes place in Biak, Hollandia and Manokwari. No forewarning given to UNTEA despite the legal requirement to do so. [jfs]

1963 January 01

Administrator delivers New Year Message to population of the Territory. [un]

1963 January 01

Indonesian flag officially flown alongside UN flag. [jfs]

1963 January 02

Direct radio link established between Hollandia/Kotabaru and Djakarta. [un]

1963 January 13

Violence between pro and anti-Indonesian Papuans breaks out in Kaimana. [jfs]

1963 January 16

General Mohammad Musa Khan, Commander in Chief of the Pakistani Army, arrives in Territory for tour of inspection of Pakistani contingent Of UNSF. [un]

1963 January 17

A Papuan student is beaten up after pro-Indonesian Papuans enter the Government School of Administration in Hollandia looking for Papuan flags. [jfs]

1963 January 17

Joint FAO/Indonesian Mission completes agricultural survey tour of Territory. [un]

1963 January 17

Several Papuan nurses beaten up by Indonesian paratroops at Hollandia hospital. [jfs]

1963 January 21

Forty-four Papuan students who had fled to Australian New Guinea return to West New Guinea following assurances given by UNTEA regarding their safety. That evening they are attacked in their dormitories by around thirty pro-Indonesian Papuans armed with knives. Two students need hospital treatment. [jfs]

1963 February 01

Definite decline noted in cholera epidemic. [un]

1963 February 06

Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio announces that Jakarta accepts the date of 1 May 1963 for the transfer of power from UNTEA to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 February 09

Chakravarthy V. Narasimhan, Under Secretary for General Assembly affairs in the United Nations, arrives in Territory for three‑day visit. [un]

1963 February 09-12

Under Secretary General Narasimhan pays a visit to West New Guinea. In a speech he confirms the 1 May 1963 handover date. [jfs]

1963 February 14

Joint WHO‑UNICEF‑Indonesian team of health specialists begins one‑week study tour of the Territory. [un]

1963 February 17-18

Led by Sergeant Frits Awom, the Papuan Volunteer Corps (PVK) in Manokwari mutiny. The Indonesian army retreats to its barracks. On the morning of 18 February, the PVK returns to barracks but not all weapons are handed back. [jfs]

1963 February 20

UN officials trick the PVK into disarming. Their arms are then removed by Pakistani UNSF troops. [jfs]

1963 March 13

Indonesia reestablishes diplomatic relations with the Netherlands. [jfs]

1963 March 13

Resumption of diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and Indonesia. [un]

1963 March 16

Administrator opens new hospital in Biak. [un]

1963 March 23

Entire Territory declared cholera free. [un]

1963 March 26

Nederlandsche Handel Mattschappij (Dutch Bank) taken over by Bank Indonesia in the Territory. [un]

1963 March 27

Administrator opens new hospital in Wamena in the Central Highlands. [un]

1963 April 10

Administrator opens new deep water jetty and wharf in Biak. [un]

1963 April 10

Following increasing pressure from Indonesian UNTEA officials, the Biak Numfor Council repudiate their December resolution and sign another one praising Jakarta and pledging loyalty to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 April 11

Administrator opens Agricultural Research Station in Manokwari, the largest in the South Pacific. [un]

1963 April 23

Administrator addresses special session of New Guinea Council in new Council building. [un]

1963 April 23

UNTEA administrator Abdoh formally opens the new West New Guinea Council building in Hollandia. [jfs]

1963 April 25

Arrival of Robert Linquist, assistant to Ellsworth Bunker with the United Nations Military Observer team which came to the Terrritory in August to ensure execution of the cease‑fire. [un]

1963 April 29

Arrival of Chakravarthy V. Narasimhan, personal representative of the Secretary‑General for the handing over of administration. [un]

1963 May 01

End of UNTEA; full Indonesian control of West New Guinea; Elizier Bonay becomes Governor of West Irian. [bab]

1963 May 01

Transfer of Administration from UNTEA to Indonesia. [un]

1963 May 01

UNTEA transfers administration of West New Guinea to Indonesia. [jfs]

1963 May 02

Sukarno first visited Kotabaru, renamed it Sukarnapura; arrived in destroyer Irian, a gift from USSR in support of Irianese liberation from the Dutch; DPRD (regional parliament) installed, consisting of 42 members, 33 of whom were Papuans. [bab]

1963 May 04

Indonesian President Sukarno arrives in West New Guinea (West Irian) for a visit. Appoints Papuan politician Eliezer Bonay as Governor. Soon afterwards, Sukarno orders the banning of all existing Papuan political parties and all unofficial political activity. [jfs]

1963 May 14

UN Under Secretary-General Narasimhan writes to the Indonesian government announcing the Secretary General's intention to send a number of 'experts' to West Irian as specified in article XVI of the New York Agreement. In the event none are ever deployed. [jfs]

1963 May 21

Confidential Australian communication reports that the Dutch and UN Under Secretary General Narasimhan have agreed that a Papuan act of self-determination need not involve any direct voting on the issue by the Papuan population. Instead, some form of 'representative' assembly could decide on behalf of the people. [jfs]

1963 May/ June

220 West Papuan refugees from the Merauke region cross the border into Australian New Guinea. [jfs]

1963 July

About 400 border dwellers from near Merauke crossed to Bensbach, Papua and New Guinea; granted permissive residence. [bab]

1963 September

Indonesia-Australia agreements to allow Australia to set up temporary border markers on the Papua and New Guinea side of the border. [bab]

1963 November

Pacific Islands Regiment patrols around Ningerum showed local population where the border was to be fixed. Indonesian troops destroy survey work of the Australian team and force the team away from the border at gunpoint. [bab]

1963 November

The United Nations Fund for West Irian (FUNDWI) is established. [jfs]

1964

During the year, Territory of Papua and New Guinea Army, Police and Department of Native Affairs border surveillance is upgraded. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Agriculture policy and development plan for the border area is submitted. [bab]

1964 January

Indonesian-Australian talks in Jakarta; Subandrio agrees that border marking should be continued and a joint team established. [bab]

1964 May

UN Under Secretary-General Rolz‑Bennett arrives in Jakarta for talks with Sukarno. He privately repeats Narasimhan's view that the Papuan act of self-determination need not include any direct voting by the West Irian population on the issue. He then briefly travels to West Irian visiting Biak, Sukarnapura (Jayapura) and Manokwari.[jfs]

1964 July 30 - August 04

First meeting to discuss the work of demarcating the border to be carried out by both Indonesian and Australian survey teams held in Djakarta; it was agreed that 14 markers would be placed by the joint team along the border, and that further negotiations would be held. [bab]

1964 August

After waiting a year, two US embassy officials are given official permission to make a ten day visit to West Irian.[jfs]

1964 November 20

Franz Kaisiepo became new Governor of West Irian, replacing Bonay. [bab]

1964 December

Indonesia withdraws from UN over Malaysia issue. [bab]

1965

OPM founded in Bird's Head region. Sporadic rebellions on‑going in the area since 1963.[jfs]

1965 January 7

Indonesia withdraws from the UN in protest at the appointment of Malaysia as a non‑permanent member of the UN Security Council. This is part of Sukarno's on-going 'Confrontation' with Britain and Malaysia. [jfs]

1965 May

Sukarno rules out any act of self‑determination for West Irian. He claims that the Irianese (Papuans) do not want it. OPM members arrested in Bird's Head region following attempted raisings of the Papuan flag. In Biak, Papuan rebels are reported to have attacked Shell Oil Company installations.[jfs]

1965 July 26

An isolated patrol post in West Irian was attacked by Kebar tribesmen. [bab]
Papuan government employees attack and kill a number of Indonesian soldiers during an illegal Papuan flag raising ceremony.[jfs]

1965 July 28

Formation of OPM. Permenas Awom and Johan Ariks led an attack on the Indonesian Red Beret unit at Arafai in Manokwari destroying the unit. Lodewijk Mandatjan led a large number of Arfak tribesmen into the jungle. Around this time, Marcus Kaisiepo in Holland declared himself President-in-exile and formed the High Court Chamber of Representatives of West New Guinea and West Papua, and Nicolaas Jouwe formed the Committee for the Freedom of West Papua. [bab]

1965 August 4

Indonesia launches Operation Sadar - the first Indonesian military counter-insurgency operation.[jfs]

1965 August 12

A battalion of the Indonesian army parachute commando regiment is flown to Biak from Jakarta in response to Papuan unrest.[jfs]

1965 August 25

Mandatjan and his followers returned from the jungle. [bab]

1965 September 30 - October 2

Unsuccessful coup attempt in which the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) is implicated. As a result, thousands of Indonesians, accused of being left-wing, are killed. Over the next two years Sukarno loses power and is replaced by the pro-Western President Suharto. [jfs]

1965 October 01

Coup which ushered in New Order and mass killings of PKI; KOPKAMTIB established. [bab]

1966

Territory of Papua and New Guinea Sepik District is divided into East and West. [bab]

1966 March 11

KOPKAMTIB strengthened by Presidential Order. [bab]

1966 May

The second meeting to discuss survey of the border between Indonesian and Australian Papua and New Guinea held in Canberra, and gave approval to the idea that markers were to be placed by the Joint Border Survey team. [bab]

1966 June 30 - September (mid)

Joint Border Survey team establishes six northern border markers. [bab]

1966 August

Indonesian Foreign Minister Malik visits West Irian accompanied by a number of foreign journalists. [jfs]

1966 September 30

During a visit to the UN in New York to arrange Indonesia's re-entry to the organisation, Foreign Minister Malik announces that Jakarta will permit a Papuan act of self-determination. [jfs]

1966 November

FUNDWI programs resumed after Indonesia rejoins UN. [bab]

1967

Freeport Sulphur granted a license to begin mining operations in West Irian. Throughout the year Papuan armed rebellion continues, particularly in the Bird's Head region. [jfs]

1967 (early)

Lodewijk and Barend Mandatjan and Fritz Awom declared Manokwari a 'free Papuan state'. There were disturbances in Merauke, Kokanao and Fakfak organised by indigenous soldiers and police but soon suppressed. Border crossings increased. [bab]

1967 January

Indonesian military aircraft strafe Manokwari town. The Indonesian government later explains that this was in response to Frits Awom declaring a 'free Papuan state'. Indonesia also admits that forty Papuans were killed in the attack. [jfs]

1967 January 03

Lodewijk Mandatjan led 14,000 Arfak tribespeople into the jungle, taking about 1,000 firearms. [bab]

1967 January / February

The third meeting to discuss the Joint Border Survey team's work of border demarcation held, in Djakarta; agreed that aerial survey markings of the border was to take place. [bab]

1967 February 13

Johan Ariks died in prison. [bab]

1967 April

Indonesia's Director-General for West Irian, Colonel Marwoto, accused Australia of harbouring anti-Indonesian Papuans in Australian New Guinea, 'The subversive group called the Free Papua Movement. Over 350 West Irianese people arrived at Weam in Papua. [bab]

1967 May

Australian External Affairs Minister Hasluck confirmed that 'something like 1,200 native people from West Irian had crossed the border since 1963. Of these, 'a very small number only' had asked for political asylum. [bab]

1967 September 08

The establishment of the eight southern border markers is completed. [bab]

1968

'Operation Awareness' [Operasi Sadar] launched in West Irian. [bab]

1968 (late)

Forty Irianese from Vanimo and Wewak were shifted to Manus. [bab]

1968 (mid)

According to Sarwo Edhie, about 6,000 troops were used in West Irian to suppress uprisings. [bab]

1968 January 21

Raid by 'separatists' on Makwu post, West Irian. [bab]

1968 February 02

Raid on Sausapor, near Sorong, by 'separatists'. [bab]

1968 April 01

Ortiz Sanz appointed UN Representative for West Irian (UNRWI). [jfs]

1968 May

Indonesian ministerial delegation visits West Irian led by the Sultan of Jogjakarta. Members are privately appalled at the scale of the economic problems in the territory and the level of unpopularity of the Indonesians among the Papuan population. [jfs]

1968 June

Six Indonesian military generals visit West Irian to assess the security situation. [jfs]

1968 June (mid)

An Indonesian combat force is sent to West Irian from South Celebes in response to continued armed Papuan rebellion. [jfs]

1968 June 29

Brigadier-General Sarwo Edhie Wibowo is appointed military commander for West Irian. [jfs]

1968 August 12

Jakarta announces that in recent military operations in West Irian 162 Papuan rebels have been killed and 3,200 surrendered. [jfs]

1968 August 12

Ortiz Sanz arrives in Indonesia. [jfs]

1968 August 20

An Indonesian government team led by Foreign Minister Malik make a four day tour of West Irian accompanied by a number of foreign journalists. [jfs]

1968 August 23

Ortiz Sanz arrives in West Irian. [jfs]

1968 August 26

Ortiz Sanz and three of his staff begin a ten day tour of West Irian accompanied by Indonesian officials. [jfs]

1968 September (late)

Ian Morgan, a British diplomat based in Jakarta. makes a brief tour of West Irian in the company of a number of Australian officials. [jfs]

1968 October 31

Patrols sent out by Territory of Papua New Guinea to clear squatters inl border camps. [bab]

1968 November 01

Leaflets signed by Sarwo Edhie are distributed around the Bird's Head peninsula calling for rebels to surrender by 1 December. [jfs]

1968 November 14

Ortiz Sanz suggests a 'mixed method' for the Act in a meeting with Sudjarwo. [jfs]

1968 November 18 - December 14

Ortiz Sanz and members of his team embark on a second tour of West Irian [jfs]

1968 December

Military Commander of West Irian, Brig.Gen. Sarwo Edhie, visits Port Moresby, accompanied by Deputy Governor Amos Indey and Provincial Security Officer, Col. Loekito Santoso. [bab]

1968 December 01

Indonesian military launches another offensive in the Bird's Head Peninsula. [jfs]

1968 December 18

UNGA passes a resolution on Australian New Guinea calling for Australia to fix an early date for self‑determination and independence in accordance with the freely expressed wishes of the people. It also calls for Australia to hold free elections under UN supervision on the basis of universal suffrage in order to transfer power to the representatives of the TPNG people. [jfs]

1969 January

Major Lodewijk Mandatjan and his brother Barend gave up fighting against Indonesian forces; Indonesian security forces used the brothers to publicise the Act of Free Choice and to persuade Fritz Awom to surrender. [bab]

1969 January (mid)

Rebellion on Bird's Head erupts again under the leadership of Frits Awom. [jfs]

1969 January 01

Papuan Bird's Head rebel leaders the Mandatjan brothers surrender to Indonesian forces. [jfs]

1969 January 03

Foreign Affairs Minister Malik announces that the Act of Free Choice will be arranged by Indonesia and. not the UN. 'Operation Authority' [Operasi Wibawa] launched in Irian Jaya as a prelude to the Act of Free Choice.

1969 January 16

Malik explained that the 'one man, one vote' system would not be practical in Irian Barat. [bab]

1969 January 30

Rolz Bennett writes to Ortiz Sanz informing him of Indonesia's rejection of his 'mixed method' suggestion for the Act. [jfs]

1969 January 7

Mandatjan brothers flown to Jakarta on a the same plane as ex‑West Irian governor Eliezer Bonay (recently released from prison), Ortiz Sanz and his wife. [jfs]

1969 February

In his first speech as Australian External Affairs Minister, Gordon Freeth indicates that Australia would accept the results of an act of self-determination in West Irian which consisted of a polling of 1000 representatives. [jfs]

1969 February 10‑12

Ortiz Sanz holds a series of meetings with Sudjarwo and other Indonesian officials. Sudjarwo gives him some details of Indonesian plans for the Act. [jfs]

1969 March

The Dutch privately ask U Thant to consider sending an 'expeditionary force' to West Irian to guarantee that the Indonesian military would not threaten or coerce the Papuans during the vote. U Thant declines to do so. [jfs]

1969 March 18

Ortiz Sanz issues a press release commenting on Indonesian plans for the Act. To be acceptable he states that the Assemblies would have to be sufficiently large and represent all sectors of the community. He also insists that all additional members would have to be clearly elected by the people. Indonesia he declared had given him assurances on all these issues. [jfs]

1969 March 22 - April 11

Eight regional councils meet to consider Indonesian proposals for the Act. Indonesian and UN reports say that the councils all accept while emphasising that the Act is unnecessary. In contrast, British journalist Garth Alexander claims that at the council meeting he witnessed in Merauke most members called for a more democratic method for the Act. [jfs]

1969 March 24

195 West Papuan political detainees released (including ex-Governor Bonay) to meet requirements set by Ortiz-Sanz. [bab]

1969 April (mid)

Widescale rebellions erupt in Western Central Highlands. Ninety armed Papuan policemen mutiny and join the rebels. [jfs]

1969 April 11

Demonstration by Papuans in front of Ortiz Sanz's Jayapura residence calling for a referendum on self-determination. Dispersed by Indonesian troops who arrest many demonstrators despite military assurances to Ortiz Sanz that they would take no action. [jfs]

1969 April 11

Demonstrators near Jayapura proclaim a 'National Republic of West Papua'; OPM leaders claim that there were over 5000 demonstrators, addressed by Moses Weror and Herman Wajoi, chairman of the Provincial parliament, with Ortiz-Sanz present. The Indonesian delegation headed by Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro was to meet the leaders, but the demonstrators were dispersed by machine-gun fire prior to the meeting. Moses Weror and 11 others were imprisoned at Ifar Gunung, the Army prison. In November 1969 the prisoners were removed to Abepura because Ifar Gunung was so full of OPM prisoners. [bab]

1969 April 16

Five armed Indonesian soldiers force their way into Ortiz Sanz's Jayapura residence and try to arrest Marshal Williams, UNRWI's black American Chief Administrative Officer mistaking him for a Papuan. [jfs]

1969 April 20

The selection process begins without any UN involvement for additional Assembly members for the Act. [jfs]

1969 April 23‑24

Uprisings in Paniai Regency; this was intended to signal uprisings throughout West Irian in all district capitals, to begin in the week prior to 1 May, to be followed by a proclamation from leaders at either Wamena or Jayapura. Only Enarotali revolted. One of the Jayapura DPRD members was kidnapped; air fields sabotaged to prevent troop landings; Brig.Gen. Sarwo Edhie's plane was fired upon by rifles when seeking to land at Enarotali to investigate reports of uprisings; his plane later landed at Nabire. 4 battalions of Red Beret paratroopers were dropped by Hercules aircraft at Enarotali, and most were believed drowned in Lake Paniai, or killed by OPM forces. Sarwo Edhie denies use of force by Government. [bab]

1969 April 24

Nine ground force task units were despatched to Irian Barat. [bab]

1969 April 26

111 West Irianese crossed to Yako quarantine camp. Fifteen uniformed Indonesian soldiers cross into Territory of Papua and New Guinea searching for refugees around Wutung and fired shots at the Officer in Charge of Wutung Patrol Post and two constables. [bab]

1969 April 27

Muju tribesmen attack an army camp near Merauke killing three Indonesian soldiers. [jfs]

1969 April 27

Plane carrying Brig. Gen. Sarwo Edhie hit by groundfire while trying unsuccessfully to land at Enarotali. [jfs]

1969 April 30

Indonesian paratroops dropped into rebel held areas. Approximately 14,000 locals are reported to have fled into the bush. [jfs]

1969 April / May

Indonesian troops cross into TPNG in pursuit of West Papuan refugees killing two. [jfs]

1969 May 01

300 Papuans demonstrate in Arso and raise the West Papuan Rag. Two demonstrators are shot by Indonesian security forces. [jfs]

1969 May 09

Press reports that foreign visitors to Irian Barat need special clearances; Irian Barat still regarded as a'special area'. [bab]

1969 May 12

Ortiz Sanz writes to Rolz Bennett saying that he wishes to ask the Indonesians to postpone the Act for several months in order to give enough time for the democratic conditions in the territory to be improved. The request is never made. [jfs]

1969 May 12-18

In response to the rebellions, Ortiz Sanz flies from Jakarta for a week long visit to West Irian. On his return, he issues a press statement (which was written before the trip took place) announcing that the situation is quiet but tense and that foreign press reports have been exaggerated. [jfs]

1969 May 18

Indonesian troops cross border into Papua New Guinea, fire on an Irianese camp at Kwari; Malik responded by claiming that Indonesia had been attacked by rebels based in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1969 May 21

Indonesian and Dutch Foreign Minister's Malik and Luns issue a joint statement following a meeting in Rome in which they pledge to fully implement the New York Agreement. [jfs]

1969 May 24

An estimated 500 University of Papua New Guinea students protest against the Act of Free Choice in West Irian. [bab]

1969 May 27

Malik reported to say that Kwari refugee camps were anti-Indonesian training camps. [bab]

1969 May 29

Clemens Runaweri and Wilhelms Zongganao crossed the border into Papua New Guinea. Indonesian soldiers crossed over 10 miles into Papua and shot dead an Irianese refugee, Julius Yam. [bab]

1969 May 30

Australian Ambassador to Indonesia, Gordon Jockel, asked Malik if it was true that Malik had accused Australia of establishing a training camp in Papua New Guinea close to the Irian Barat border. Jockel presented a protest and stated that Australia did not have a camp there. Malik said he had not accused Australia, and had used the words 'if there is...' [bab]

1969 May 30

Six weeks after the process has commenced, the UNRWI team receive a timetable for 'elections' of additional assembly members for the Act. [jfs]

1969 June

The number of refugees in the various holding camps in Papua New Guinea were: Yako 112; Morehead 280 and Manus 56. [bab]

1969 June 04

In Biak, UN officials witness their first selection process for additional assembly members. [jfs]

1969 June 06

Malik states that Indonesia would 'take all steps' to prevent further border incidents. [bab]

1969 June 06

Original date given by Indonesia for the end of the Assembly selection process. [jfs]

1969 June 07

Enarotali chiefs and village heads returned from the jungle to their homes. [bab]

1969 June 10-11

Mr Royce Webb and Mr. Ken Brown of the Department of District Administration and Mr. J.M.C. Watson, First Secretary, Australian Embassy, Djakarta, meet with authorities in Djajapura to discuss the improvement of liaison along the border, including regular meetings between officer in charge, and radio and telephone links; Royce Webb was later chosen to be Australia's liaison officer in Djajapura. [bab]

1969 June 11

28 aspiring Papuan refugees killed by ABRI in the border region (Osborne 1985: 157). [sek]

1969 June 13

Ortiz Sanz writes to Sudjarwo requesting that he hold some fresh elections in areas where no UN officials were present during the original selection process for the Act. [jfs]

1969 June 14

Ortiz Sanz writes to Rolz Bennett informing him that he has urged the Indonesians to obtain assurances from the Dutch that they won't challenge the result of the Act. He also reveals that he has offered to show Sudjarwo 'on a personal basis' those parts of his planned report to the UNGA which 'might be controversial'. [jfs]

1969 June 18

Malik claimed that under the border agreement between Indonesia and Australia, Australia was bound to return every West Irianese who crossed into Australian territory. [bab]

1969 June 23

Indonesia sends Ortiz Sanz a timetable for nine fresh elections. In the end the UN witnesses six. In total the UN witnesses the selection of 195 of the 1022 representatives who eventually take part in the Act. [jfs]

1969 June 27

The House of Assembly of Territory of Papua and New Guinea passed a resolution of 'deep concern' over Indonesia's musjawarah and UN acceptance of it and not the 'one man, one vote' system. [bab]

1969 June 28

TPNG Assembly adopts a resolution criticising Indonesia and the UN for neglecting the political and human rights of the Papuans. [jfs]

1969 July (early)

Representatives for the Act - are reportedly isolated from the rest of the population by the Indonesians. [jfs]

1969 July (late)

2nd Paniai revolt. (Osborne 1985: 47) [sek]

1969 July 01

Renewed rebellion in Western Central Highlands involving Ekari tribesmen. [jfs]

1969 July 14

Merauke's musyawarah. 6 delegates are killed by fellow Papuans (Osborne 1985: 47). [sek]

1969 July 14

The Act of Free Choice begins with a unanimous vote by the Merauke Assembly to remain with Indonesia. Among the guests at the event are various foreign ambassadors including those from Australia and the Netherlands. [jfs]

1969 July 14 - August 2

Eight assemblies vote in the Act of Free Choice. [bab]

1969 July 15

Ortiz Sanz gives a press conference and defends the Indonesian method adopted for the Act as 'practical'. [jfs]

1969 July 17

The Wamena Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 19

The Nabire Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. Scheltema, the Dutch Ambassador leaves the territory and does not witness the remaining Assembly votes. [jfs]

1969 July 23

The Fak Fak Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 26

The Sorong Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 July 29

The Manokwari Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. Australian journalist Hugh Lunn witnesses Papuan demonstrators outside the Assembly hall thrown into trucks and driven away by Indonesian security forces. He goes inside and tells Ortiz Sanz who reportedly refuses to intervene. [jfs]

1969 July 31

The Biak Assembly votes unanimously to remain with Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 August 02

The final assembly meeting takes place in Jayapura with a unanimous vote to remain with Indonesia. The authorities organise celebrations to mark the end of the Act. [jfs]

1969 August 17

Ortiz Sanz attends celebrations in Jakarta to mark the twenty‑fourth anniversary of the 1945 proclamation of Indonesian independence. [jfs]

1969 August 18

Ortiz Sanz leaves Indonesia [jfs]

1969 September

Soeharto and entourage visit West Irian to officiate at ceremonies marking the completion of the 'Act of Free Choice'; West Irian becomes Indonesia's 17th Province; Soeharto declares an amnesty for those who had taken part in the Awom, Mandatjan and Enarotali revolts. Security increased on both sides of the border because of Soeharto's visit. [bab]

1969 September 04

Duco Middelburg (Netherlands Ambassador to the UN) comments privately to his Australian counterpart, Patrick Shaw, that he 'hopes that the handling of the Act in the UNGA will go quietly'. [jfs]

1969 September 10

Confidential FCO briefing to the UK Mission to the UN in New York advises them to 'steer clear' of the West Irian issue but adds 'privately however, we recognise that the people of West Irian have no desire to be ruled by the Indonesians ...and that the process of consultation did not allow a genuinely free choice to be made'. [jfs]

1969 September / October

Indonesian Foreign Minister Malik tours a number of African countries to argue the Indonesian position over the Act. Papuan nationalist Nicholas Jouwe also tours Africa lobbying against Indonesia. [jfs]

1969 October

Sarwo Edhie offered amnesty to those who had fled to Papua New Guinea l to return to West Irian, amnesty to be in force until end of 1969. [bab]

1969 November 06

UN Secretary General U Thant presents his report on the Act to the UNGA. It consists of a summary by himself followed by reports from Ortiz Sanz and the Indonesians. [jfs]

1969 November 13‑19

Series of plenary meetings held at the UNGA to discuss a resolution which 'takes note' of the results of the Act and the UN's fulfillment of its role in the procedure. The resolution is sponsored by Belgium, Indonesia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Thailand. [jfs]

1969 November 18

A number of African representatives at the UN hold a 'stormy' meeting on the Act and refuse to receive the Indonesian permanent representative. [jfs]

1969 November 19

UNGA votes by 58 to 31 with 24 abstentions to reject a move by Dahomey for an adjournment for further consultations on the Act. It then votes by 60 to 15, with 39 abstentions, to reject a Ghanian amendment to the resolution on the Act which calls for a further act of free choice in West Irian by the end of 1975. Finally, the UNGA votes by 84 to none with 30 abstentions to pass the unamended resolution on the Act. [jfs]

1969 December 15

286 refugees from the southern border area accepted the offer of amnesty and were flown to Merauke; another 40 walked back across the border. [bab]

1970-1979

1970

500 villagers killed in Lereh (TAPOL in Osborne 1985: 50). [sek]

1970

ABRI punative expedition to Biak's west coast. A mass grave is made and people are drowned at sea (B&L 1988: 79). [sek]

1970

During 1970Sekotchiau village opts to become part of Territory of Papua and New Guinea and border surveillance declines. [bab]

1970 till 1974

Operasi Wibawa under General Acub Zainal (Osborne 1985: 145). [sek]

1970 May

ABRI's Undayana Division shot Maria Bonsapia and her fetus was cut from her womb and dissected. [sek]

1970 June

Mass killings of West Papuans reported to have occurred in Biak. [bab]

1971 May 21

OPM raid led by Peter Bonsafia on a sawmill at Abepura, killing all but one of the workers. Sawyer, Ali Gora, taken prisoner and from then on worked with the OPM for some years. [bab]

1971 July

Waris attacked by OPM forces led by Jereth Wajoi to give force to the proclamation of independence. [bab]

1971 July 01

Republic of West Papua proclaimed by Seth Rumkorem at Markas Victoria. A constitution and programme were drafted and adopted. [bab]

1971 July 01

Seth Rumkorem issues declaration of independence (B &       L 1988: 64-5) (Osborne 1985: 55-6) [sek]

1972 August 27

Secretary of Australian Department of Foreign Affairs, Sir Keith Waller, led delegtion to Jakarta to discuss West Irian - Territory of Papua and New Guinea border and continental shelf boundaries and joint naval exercises. [bab]

1972 October

Australian, Indonesian and Papua New Guinea officials met in Jakarta to discuss border delineation and administration. [bab]

1972 July - August

Eight West Papuan border crossers deported by Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 January 22‑26

Second phase of negotiations in Canberra to determine Indonesia-Australia boundaries between West Irian and Territory of Papua and New Guinea and the sea boundaries south of Irian; the Australian delegation contained some Papua New Guinea representatives. [bab]

1973 February 12

Somare visited Jakarta and on behalf of Australian government, signed agreement with Indonesia defining territorial water boundaries and land boundaries between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia; Kompas reported an attack by 50 West Papuan rebels on an Indonesian medical team killing one and wounding another of the party of 12, 25 miles southwest of Vanimo; rebels were reported to have fled to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 March

Freeport Copper begins operations. [bab]

1973 March 01

The name West Irian was changed to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 March 06

Somare answered a question by Matiabe Yuwi referring to Irianese by stating that only two West Irianese had been granted percussive residence in the previous year. No applications had been received in the previous 6 months. [bab]

1973 March 13

Herman Womsiwor in The Hague announced that there were 5,000 troops under Seth Rumkorem in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 March 15

Soeharto thanked Australia for banning OPM from Papua New Guinea [bab]

1973 April 11

5 West Papuans sentenced by Vanimo court to from two to six months imprisonment for illegal entry. [bab]

1973 May 13

Arms taken from a band of West Papuans under Martin Sesarai in Papua New Guinea were reported to have been handed back to Indonesia. [bab]

1973 May 7-10

13 Papua New Guinea businessmen travelled to Irian Jaya on trade talks. [bab]

1973 June 02

National Liberation Army (TPN) claimed to have wiped out an army garrison at Skopi village in the Baliem Valley; 13 reported killed. Acub Zainal was replaced as military commander of Irian Jaya by Col. Kisrad Sutrisno, formerly chief of staff. [bab]

1973 June 22

Rudjito installed by Malik as Consul-General to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 June 29

Acub Zainal and Domine Jan Mamoribo installed as Governor and Deputy Governor of Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 July 12

Reported minor clash between Indonesian and OPM forces under Rumkorem; none hurt. [bab]

1973 July 19

An West Papuans who had crossed the border illegally about 20 times and who had continually failed to substantiate a case of political persecution in Irian Jaya was again deported Chief Minister Somare would not disclose criteria for recommending permissive residency. [bab]

1973 August

Albert Maori Kilo appointed minister for defence and foreign relations; soon after taking up office Kiki had secret talks with OPM leaders designed to effect a peaceful solution of OPM-Indonesian Government problems. [bab]

1973 August 8

Three of the 5 West Papuans charged in April were ordered to return to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1973 September

Freeport's opening ceremony. Suharto changes name from "Irian Barat" to "Irian Jaya" (B&L 1988: 33). [sek]

1973 September

OPM announces that 30,000 people killed by Indonesian troops since 1963 (B&L 1988: 66) [sek]

1973 September 04

First Indonesian Consul-General Brigadier General Roedjito arrived in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 September 25

Series of negotiations on administration of Indonesian. Territory of Papua and New Guinea boundary opened in Jakarta (Papua New Guinea represented by Australian Solicitor-General, R. J. Elliot). [bab]

1973 September 28

A memorandum of understanding signed by parties to negotiations on border. [bab]

1973 October 14

Major General Ali Murtopo visiting Papua New Guinea argued that there should be defence co-operation between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1973 November 13

Malik, Somare and Kiki sign border agreement in Port Moresby; entry into force November 26 1974. [bab]

1973 December 15

Kiki visited Jakarta for a week as Malik's guest. [bab]

1974 June 02-06

Kiki, Malik and Australian Embassy staff met in Jakarta; Papua New Guinea to open consulate general in Jakarta. [bab]

1974 June or July

First Madang meeting between OPM representatives and Sir Maori Kiki. [bab]

1974 July 27-30

Maori Kiki visits Jakarta, talks with Malik and Soeharto. [bab]

1974 August

Second Madang meeting between OPM representatives and Sir Maori Kiki. [bab]

1974 August 14

A telephone link was opened between Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. [bab]

1974 September 03-06

Kiki visits Irian Jaya. [bab]

1974 November 05-08

Maori Kiki visits Jakarta, speaks with Minister for Defence and Security, General M. Panggabean, Foreign Affairs staff and Minister for Home Affairs, Amir Machmud. [bab]

1974 November 16-23

Tei Abal, leader of Papua New Guinea opposition, and associates, visit Jakarta at Malik's invitation; met with Soeharto. [bab]

1974 November 26

Border agreement signed in Canberra between Indonesia's Ambassador Hertasning, Australia's Foreign Minister Don Willessee and Papua New Guinea's High Commissioner, Oala Oala Rarua. [bab]

1974 December

Serui statement made calling for independence of WP and a re-unification of the island of New Guinea (B&L 1988: 89) [sek]

1974 December 06

Foreign Minister Sir Maori Kiki presented a statement to Papua New Guinea House of Assembly outlining the policy of 'universalism'. [bab]

1975 January 25

Military command of Irian Jaya transferred from Kisrad Sutrisno to Brig.Gen. Imam Munandar. [bab]

1975 February 06

Six West Papuans who distributed a declaration calling on Indonesian troops to leave the province and allow Irian Jaya to become an independent state were arrested in Serui [Ch. Mirino died, Sem Menami Satya, Petrus Muabuay, Anton Tewa and two others, now free]. [bab]

1975 March 31

Brib.Gen. Sutran became Acting Governor and replaced Acub Zainal after he was shown to have engaged in an extravagant building programme. [bab]

1975 May

Papua New Guinea Cabinet appointed Anthony Siaguru as first permanent head of Department of Defence, Foreign Relations and Trade. [bab]

1975 July 01

The Provisional Government of West Papua opened an official information and co-ordination office in Dakar, Senagal, with Ben Tanggahma as Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government. [bab]

1975 August 12

Sutran installed as Governor of Irian Jaya. [bab]

1975 September 01-02

Seth Rumkorem allegedly travelled to Port Moresby to tally to Papua New Guinea authorities. [bab]

1975 September 10

Suharto installed Rudjito, Indonesian Consul-General to Papua New Guinea, as Ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1975 September 16

Papua New Guinea gained independence. [bab]

1975 September / October (?)

Two Irianese students who had illegally crossed the border were handed back to Indonesian forces by Papua New Guinea forces, reportedly they were shot by Indonesian authorities. [bab]

1975 December

Indonesian troops land in East Timor. [bab]

1975 December 08

Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission Chairman, Bernard Narakobi urged Papua New Guinea to beware of Indonesian imperialism. [bab]

1976

Border development proposals for Papua New Guinea border area submitted. Border road from Green River to Amanab commenced by Papua New Guinea Defence Force. Public Works commences road from Vanimo to Bewani. [bab]

1976 February 20

Somare stated the government's opposition to the rebels and its determination to prosecute them and deport Irianese sympathisers of the OPM in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 February 22

Kiki warns Irianese rebels to stay out of Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 February 23

100 Papua New Guinea students protested outside government offices and the Indonesian Embassy against Indonesian intervention in East Timor; Adam Malik complained of the students' actions. [bab]

1976 February 28

Sutopo Juwono admitted that it was proving difficult to crush Rumkorem's movement. [bab]

1976 February

Dutch branch of Revolutionary Provincial Government of West Papua claimed that 5,000 Indonesian troops had launched an offensive on the border, with the collusion of the Pacific Islands Regiment, killing 1605 villagers. [bab]

1976 March

De facto faction of OPM formed when Jacob Prai defected from Seth Rumkorem. Headquarters at Markas Pemka; Marthin Tabu in charge of Tepenal. [bab]

1976 July (early)

51 OPM supporters fled across the border to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1976 July

Sir Maori Kiki undertook to investigate the matter of Irianese citizenship by a Citizenship Advisory Committee. [bab]

1976 October 06

Soeharto met with Diro and asked that movements of anti-Indonesian rebels along the border be monitored. [bab]

1976 December

Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Brigadier General Roejito sought to gauge Papua New Guinea feeling regarding repatriation of Irianese in Papua New Guinea Debate in Papua New Guinea parliament over Papua New Guinea's relationship with Indonesia. [bab]

1976 December 07

Somare assured Papua New Guinea that there was no deal between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia to repatriate 500 Irianese refugees, as had been stated by Antara. [bab]

1976 December 14

Sir Maori Kiki announced that on the advice of the Citizenship Advisory Committee, 157 of the Irianese refugees in Papua New Guinea would be granted citizenship. [bab]

1976 December 29

16 year old Martin Giyai-Hembring, a stowaway from Irian Jaya to Papua New Guinea, was ordered to return to Jayapura. [bab]

1976 December 30

Seth Rumkorem flown to Port Moresby for government talks; this was criticised by the Indonesian Embassy. [bab]

1977

Indonesian national election. [sek]

1977

Operasi Kikis by General Imam Munander (Osborne 1985: 145). [sek]

1977

War in Wamena (Osborne 1985: 4-5, 67-72) Reinhardt, Denis 1977. Nation Review. 21 September. (B&L 1988: 121-4; 119-124) [sek]

1977

Yeret Wayoi of Papenal attacks TPN members at a sago-gathering places called Suhampa on the PNG side of the border (Osborne 1985: 65). By 1981, Wayoi was receiving protection from Indonesia ((Osborne 1985: 73) [sek]

1977 (?)

Jacob Prai breaks from Rumkorem's TPN to form Pemka (Pemulihan Keadilan) and Papenal (Pasukan Pembebasan Nasional) (Osborne 1985: 63, 64) [sek]

1977 January 10-16

Somare visited Jakarta; talks include possibility of Malaysia-type border patrols; joint communique issued, stating that Papua New Guinea recognised East Timor as an internal issue for Indonesia; that both Indonesia and Papua New Guinea would prevent the use of their territory for launching any terrorist attacks against the other country. [bab]

1977 January 13

Further speculation that Somare and Malik were to do a deal to repatriate 500 West Papuan rebels. Somare denied these reports, but Malik was quoted in the New Standard on 13 January 1977 as saying that a deal had been made. Somare again denied the reports. [bab]

1977 February

The South Pacific News Service was established by Franz Marhaaen to publicise the OPM's demands. [bab]

1977 March

Six West Papuans from Serui arrested in 1975 tried; one died in Serui prison; others sentenced to six to eight years. 160 West Papuans received Papua New Guinea citizenship certificates [bab]

1977 March 18

According to OPM press release, the Papua New Guinea and Indonesian authorities met on this date to consider Indonesian troops crossing into Papua New Guinea territory to assist in Papua New Guinea 'pre-election mopping-up activities'. [bab]

1977 April

Rumkorem's followers and Revolutionary Provisional Government Ministers Amos Indey and Darius Maurey allegedly captured by Prai's forces and kept prisoner. [bab]

1977 April 07

About 12 local Indonesian officials hacked to death near Jayapura. [bab]

1977 April 07

OPM units attack military posts in Baliem (B&L: 67) [sek]

1977 April 13

Bernard Tanggahma at a press conference at The Hague claimed that 400,000 West Papuans 'had been liberated' recently. [bab]

1977 April 20-24

Police station at Paget 112km southwest of Jayapura raided; 4 police killed and 12 kidnapped; from 6 to 12 West Papuans killed in the fight. [bab]

1977 April 29

Post-Courier reported the contents of a letter dated March 13 1977 from New York, supposedly by Nicolaas Jouwe telling the Irianese community in Port Moresby that terrorism was the only option open for Irianese fighting for independence. [bab]

1977 May 490

West Papuans reported to have crossed border: 290 at Kwari (250 km north west of Daru), and 200 at Wawol, in Western Province. [bab]

1977 May

ABRI shoots a West Sepik villager inside the PNG border (Osborne 1988: 160). [sek]

1977 May

OV-10 Broncos dropped anti-personnel Daisy Cluster bombs near Ilaga (B&L 1988: 34). [sek]

1977 May (early)

Indonesian bombing of villages near Tembagapura. [bab]

1977 May (early)

Nicolaas Jouwe denied that he sent any letter threatening to use terrorism. [bab]

1977 May (late)

Reports that an Indonesian soldier had shot a Papua New Guinean citizen in West Sepik cause Somare to address the nation appealing to people not to be alarmed by such reports A report from Jakarta suggests that all fighting in the Baliem Valley stemmed from intertribal causes and was the result of a football match brawl; at least 250 of the Baliem valley people, mostly Danis, had been killed in the fighting Two Indonesians captured across the Papua New Guinea border. [bab]

1977 May 09

Seth Rumkorem and his followers caught by members of an opposing OPM faction; Rumkorem escaped one week later, seen at Wutung. [bab]

1977 May 18

The scheduled Papua New Guinea National Border Committee meeting was postponed due to border clashes between OPM factions. [bab]

1977 May 28

About 60 cross to Bewani, West Sepik, from Irian Jaya. [bab]

1977 May 29

Through Somare's intervention, Tom Unwin of the UN Development Fund is sent to Western Province as UNHCR representative. [bab]

1977 May 30

Post-Courier reported that a Papua New Guinea villager at Wainda was shot dead by Indonesian troops; not confirmed by government. [bab]

1977 May 31

Papua New Guinea National Border Committee met to discuss Irianese rebels and refugees. [bab]

1977 June (early)

Tom Unwin said the 204 Irianese at Suki did not wish to be repatriated. [bab]

1977 June 01

Somare holds press conference on border situation. All of the refugees at Suki and Bensbach (officially numbered at 218, not the 490 previously reported) to be voluntarily returned. [bab]

1977 June 03

About 60 West Irianese received citizenship. [bab]

1977 June 07

Kiki concerned at fighting in Irian Jaya; seeks guarantee that Indonesia would not punish border crossers if repatriated; asked for an explanation for the border crossings; statement issued by Foreign Affairs Secretary and Chairman of the National Border Committee, Tony Siaguru. [bab]

1977 June 08

92 Irianese villagers had crossed into West Sepik; 46 Irianese in Lake Murray area. [bab]

1977 June 10

Malik stated that border crossers would not be harmed if they had not committed crimes. [bab]

1977 June 14

Malik told Kiki that Indonesia would not tolerate the exploitation of tribal clashes for political purposes, and that Irian Jaya was Indonesia's internal affair; Refugees repatriated. [bab]

1977 June 18

Attack on a police post at Akimuga [sek]

1977 July

Freeport's pipe blown up. [sek]

1977 July

Rift between Seth Rumkorem and Jacob Prai (B&L 1988: 64) [sek]

1977 July 23

OPM attack on Freeport installation, causing US$1 million in damage. In response, Indonesian forces bombed Timika, Nabi and other villages. [bab]

1977 August

OPM attack on Australian army plane mapping near Wamena. Papua New Guinea Defence Force Commander-in-Chief Diro met with Rumkorem at Wutung and Wewak. [bab]

1977 August 30

OPM literature circulated at South Pacific Forum meeting in Port Moresby. [bab]

1977 September

Denis Reinhardt reported that fighting since April may have killed 2000 Irianese and 345 Indonesians. [bab]

1977 September (early)

A Jayapura conference reached agreement between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea over the use of border passes, Antara reported. [bab]

1977 October

A University of Papua New Guinea professor, Brian Brogan, announced that an Australian JIO officer, Lindsay Burridge, of the High Commission in Port Moresby, had sought information from him concerning past and present Irianese sympathisers at University of Papua New Guinea; this precipitated a student demonstration against the High Commission. [bab]

1977 October (?)

OPM destroy an Indonesian military DC3. [bab]

1977 October ?7

Ten Irianese followers of Rumkorem jailed for 5 months for illegal border crossing. [bab]

1977 October 19

Seven Irianese repatriated. [bab]

1977 November

Defence Minister Louis Mona told Parliament that any West Irianese crossing into Papua New Guinea illegally would be jailed and deported, and that army patrols would be stepped up; Bulletin reporter David Bradbury interviews Jacob Prai in the border area. [bab]

1977 November 10

Somare urged OPM and Indonesia to negotiate. [bab]

1977 December

Talks reportedly held between Papua New Guinea, Australia and Indonesia over border problems between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [bab]

1977 December 24

Foreign Minister Olewale allowed Nicolaas Jouwe into Papua New Guinea 'to show that Papua New Guinea is a free country'. [bab]

1978

300 villagers flee to PNG after their houses are burned and villages strafed by aircraft (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]

1978

Jacob Prai gains asylum in Sweden (Osborne 1985: 75). Elky Bemey takes over leadership of Pemka. [sek]

1978

Papenal's Paniai headquarters established in Ekamonala. [sek]

1978 January 19

6 young West Papuan men were sentenced to 6 months jail for illegal entry. [bab]

1978 January 24

Jouwe left Papua New Guinea after talks with Olewale. [bab]

1978 January 27

Papua New Guinea refuses Indonesian Embassy request to set up independent radio link with Jakarta and Jayapura. [bab]

1978 January 30

Major General Busiri Surjowinoto replaces Major-General Roedjito as Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 February (early)

200 West Papuan refugees remain in the border area in Western Province, requiring medical assistance. [bab]

1978 February (mid)

Maurey and Indey, Prai's followers, seek asylum in Papua New Guinea Indonesia offers asylum to Rumkorem. [bab]

1978 February 11

General Maraden Panggabean, Defence and Security Minister and ABRI Commander-in-Chief, reported that 750 West Papuans led by Martin Tabu had surrendered to Indonesian forces at Urania village on January 20. According to PangQabean, there were other Irianese rebels (most of whom were in Rumkorem's party) who were camped in Papua New Guinea, but their numbers were few. [bab]

1978 April 10

West Papuans in Holland name ministers in the de facto West Papuan government; ten are resident in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 April 14-15

Prai and Rumkorem were flown to Port Moresby to speak to Foreign Affairs Secretary Siaguru who warned the rebels to move their camps from West Sepik before they were burnt down. [bab]

1978 April 18

Indonesian Embassy in Papua New Guinea requested Papua New Guinea government to act against those who had been named as cabinet members of the de facto West Papuan Government, so that they would be required to reaffirm their loyalty to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 April 26

Indonesia asked Papua New Guinea to explain how two Australian journalists were able to visit a rebel camp based in West Sepik. [bab]

1978 May 01

Olewale suggested to the Indonesian government that the First Secretary (Information) at the Indonesian Embassy in Port Moresby, Mr. Jusbeth Siregar, be reposted, due to remarks by Siregar about Papua New Guinea's position with regard to talks between Siaguru and Prai and Rumkorem. [bab]

1978 May 08

Olewale was advised that Indonesian Ambassador Maj-Gen Busiri; Surjowinoto had reprimanded Siregar. [bab]

1978 May 13-21

Olewale visits Indonesia, including East Timor; Indonesia expressed doubts over Papua New Guinea's commitment to ousting rebels; a joint statement was issued pledging Papua New Guinea would take all measures against rebels using its territory to launch attacks on Indonesia. [bab]

1978 May 16

Indonesian officials belonging to a negotiating mission to tally to Martin Tabu kidnapped by rebels south of Jayapura; 2 killed, 7 others, including Col. Ismail, Intelligence Com. Lieut. Col. A. F. Admiral Fajar, and Rev. William Maloali, chairman of the Provincial Parliament, held hostage; later demand issued for release of six prisoners in Papua New Guinea held for illegal entry; and for Australia and Papua New Guinea to organise a Round Table Conference to free Irian Jaya from Indonesia. [bab]

1978 May 16

Kidnapping of high level military officers by Marthin Tabu (of the Pemka group?) (B&L 1988: 69) (Osborne 1985: 72) [sek]

1978 May 20

The Age reported that Papua New Guinea and Indonesia were planning joint military actions against OPM rebels. [bab]

1978 May 25

Kompas reported information from Ali Murtopo that some Irianese under Martin Tabu had on about 17 May taken some provincial government officials hostage. This was reported to be because food supplies had been delayed. The Age reported atrocities against Irianese at Freeport early June 1978 Merdeka reported that 1,500 people in Jayawijaya district had been killed in the past year. This was the first detailed newspaper report in the Jakarta press on Irian Jaya for over 6 months. [bab]

1978 June (late)

An Indonesian helicopter landed at Amanab, 20 km inside the Papua New Guinea border. [bab]

1978 June 07

Okuk accused the Papua New Guinea government of secretly allowing Indonesian troops to pursue guerillas across the border into Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1978 June 21

100 Indonesian soldiers were reported to have crossed 3km into Papua New Guinea to pursue rebels. [bab]

1978 June 26

Sir John Guise accused Indonesia of testing its 'expansionist design' on Papua New Guinea by sending troops into Papua New Guinea's territory; challenged Indonesia to state that this was not the case. [bab]

1978 June / July

Both Indonesian and Papua New Guinea troops stationed along a 150 km stretch on the northern part of the border in a separately commanded offensive against OPM; Operation Rausimkwik led by Lieut-Col. Tom Poang. [bab]

1978 July

The Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea spends a fortnight in discussion with Soeharto and Jakarta officials. The Jayapura provincial commander is recalled. [bab]

1978 July

The UNHCR representative, Robert Sampatkumar, visited border; Advised by West Papuans of Indonesian raids against Irianese villages; UN granted Papua New Guinea US$100,000 to aid refugees, and to build camp at Oksapmin, 100 km from the border. [bab]

1978 July (?)

The Jakarta press is banned from covering events in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1978 July (late)

Indonesian patrol razed the small Papua New Guinea village of Sawan on the border. [bab]

1978 July 05

Waigani intelligence officials state that they suspect Indonesian troops of launching bombing raids against border villages in the area south west of Wutung. [bab]

1978 July 23

Australian Ambassador to Indonesia, Tom Critchley, expressed Australia's concern over Indonesian military activities along the border. [bab]

1978 August 13

Tapenal troops seek assylum in PNG (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]

1978 August

Prai arrested in PNG (Osborne 1985: 165). [sek]

1978 August 17

Discussion of a Matter of Public Importance - Government's Handling of the West Irian Border Issue - in Papua New Guinea parliament Col. Ismail released in exchange for food (according to the Indonesian authorities); weapons (according to Martin Tabu's courier). [bab]

1978 August 21

Papua New Guinea Government refused an Indonesian request to return OPM members Darius Maury and Amos Indey to Indonesia; Olewale feared that they would be executed, and requested assistance from the UNHCR to find a third country to provide them with a refuge; they had previously served a 6 month term for illegal entry, ending on August 20 1978; Maury and Indey held at Oksapmin refugee camp, West,Sepik 13 members of Rumkorem's faction crossed to Wutung to seek political asylum a further 126 Irianese crossed to Kamberatoro. [bab]

1978 August 23

Secret meeting between Lieut-Col. Tom Poang of Papua New Guinea Defence Force and OPM members and Air Niugini expatriate pilots at Smugglers Inn, Madang, to arrange an arms deal. Poang later stated he had merely tried to obtain intelligence of OPM operations. [bab]

1978 August 28

Another 50 West Papuans crossed to Yako, at least 30 of whom were seeking asylum [bab]

1978 September (late)

A further 3 Indonesian officials were seized when they went to negotiate the release of the hostages held by Martin Tabu. [bab]

1978 September 27

Jacob Prai and Otto Ondawame, both OPM members, and Papua New Guinea permissive resident, Nicholas Meset, captured in Vanimo. Frai and Ondawame sentenced to two months' imprisonment for illegal entry; Indonesian Embassy in Port Moresby pressured for them to be sent to Indonesia to stand trial for treason; letters in Papua New Guinea press call for political asylum for Prai and Ondawame. 500 Papua New Guinea troops stationed along the border. [bab]

1978 September 29

Meset sentenced for 2 months for helping to conceal Prai and Ondawame. [bab]

1978 October 10

Prai and Ondawame seek UN help to resettle in a third country. [bab]

1978 November

Pangu-PPP split; Pangu-United make a government. Papua New Guinea requests UNHCR to find third country for Prai and Ondawame. Indonesian Defence Minister General Mohammad Yusuf called for an end to enforcing the wearing of shorts and not penis gourds (introduction of the so-called 'Smiling Policy'). [bab]

1978 November 12

Papua New Guinea Government shelved citizenship applications from West Papuan refugees, because, according to Foreign Minister Olewale, former West Irianese who had been granted citizenship were abusing the privilege; Warren Dutton MP said that it was unconstitutional not to consider applications from residents of 8 years' standing. [bab]

1978 December 11-14

Mochtar Kusumaatmadja visited Port Moresby, confirming the 'smiling policy' in Irian Jaya; Utula Samana, provincial planner for Morobe, protested against Mochtar's arrival at Lae airport; Indonesia and Papua New Guinea agreed to take measures to control pollution in the Fly River area. [bab]

1979 January 31

Okuk calls on the Papua New Guinea government to formulate clear policy on Irianese refugees. [bab]

1979 February 26

Somare told Parliament that Indonesia was not expansionist in reply to comments about a document allegedly prepared by Indonesian military to take over Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 March 04

Prai, Ondawame, Maury, Indey and Meset fly from Port Moresby to Sweden where they had been granted refuge. The UNHCR still seeking refuge for 103 other refugees. [bab]

1979 March 05

Preliminary talks held in Port Moresby to determine new border agreement to replace the 1973 agreement. A deportation order had been served on Meset for harbouring Prai and Ondawame (?). [bab]

1979 April (mid)

Police and Defence Force border patrols increased after Yako raid. [bab]

1979 April 02

A group of 15 armed West Papuans crossed the border and attacked the Yako refugee camp taking 2 West Papuan border crossers with them. [bab]

1979 April 04

Two Dutch citizens, Max Ireeuw and Tan Sek Tai, both formerly of Irian Jaya, accused of assisting OPM and deported from Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 April 09

Vanimo District court sentenced 2 West Papuan border crossers, Ennos Brunei and Francis Kosei, to 4 months jail for illegal entry. Brunei was sentenced to a further 4 months for possessing an unregistered pistol. [bab]

1979 April 25

A West Papuan border crosser, Yan Nusi, of Serui sentenced to 3 months for illegal crossing. [bab]

1979 June 04-06

Soeharto visits Papua New Guinea; communique issued that a second border treaty will be signed; agreed to consultation over border development and Technical Cooperation Agreement signed by Panggabean and Olewale. [bab]

1979 June

145 West Papuan refugees transferred to Wabo camp from Yako, Oksapmin, Madang and Weam.

1979 July

ALP National Conference called for a UN fact-finding mission to Irian Jaya to investigate alleged human rights violations; called on Australian Government to grant asylum to any OPM refugees who sought it under UN supervision. [bab]

1979 July 28

A Papua New Guinea delegation of 14 attended the second round of talks in Jakarta to revise the Border Agreement. [bab]

1979 August 10

Australian Defence Minister Killen advised the Papua New Guinea Government to begin joint border patrols with Indonesia. [bab]

1979 August 29

Elezier Bonay, former governor of Irian Jaya, seeks political asylum in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1979 October (mid)

Third round of border treaty negotiations presented a draft treaty in Jakarta; Papua New Guinea delegation led by Siaguru; Indonesian delegation led by Soedarsono. [bab]

1979 November (late)

18 West Papuan youths deported when they were found not to be genuine refugees. [bab]

1979 November (mid)

A memorandum of understanding to improve radio communications and Jayapura-Vanimo telephone was signed by the Indonesian Ambassador Maj-Gen Busiri Surjowinoto and Acting Secretary for Transport and Civil Aviation, John Gaius. [bab]

1979 December 12

A West Papuan, named Ibo, with two Papua New Guinea wives was deported, after 7 years' residence in Papua New Guinea for failing to obey a Foreign Affairs and Trade order to return voluntarily to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1979 December 13

6 West Papuans deported after a fight at Wabo camp; 2 jailed for 3 months in Jayapura, others sent back to their homes. [bab]

1979 December 17

New border agreement signed by Olewale and Mochtar; Olewale visited Indonesia and reached an agreement with Mochtar on the return of border crossers illegally crossing into Papua New Guinea for economic reasons. [bab]

1979 March, April or May

Nyaro appointed by Port Moresby OPM leaders as Prai's successor in the de facto government. [bab]

1979-1982

Major-General C. I. Santoso commander of WP. Initiates Operasi Sapu Bersih (B&L 1988: 70-1) [sek]

1980-1989

1980

6 census takers killed in the headwaters of the Mamberamo. [sek]

1980 February 06

New border administration pact and border technical co-operation pact allowing for border development came into force; signed by Foreign Affairs Minister, Mr. Tony Ila and Indonesian Ambassador, Busiri Suryowinoto. [bab]

1980 February 19

Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs Minister, Ila, requests that propaganda from Irianese rebels regarding Indonesian authorities' actions against Irianese be checked for accuracy before publication; this followed a visit to Jayapura by two Vanimo officials who had been asked to take action against those responsible for inaccurate reporting. [bab]

1980 March 11

Vote of no-confidence in Somare's Government brings Julius Chan to power. [bab]

1980 March 23

Indonesia declares 200 mile exclusive economic zone around its coasts. [bab]

1980 April 19

Marthin Tabu arrested at ABRI post, Waris. [bab]

1980 June

Papua New Guinea granted special observer status to ASEAN. [bab]

1980 June 05

Indonesia and Papua New Guinea reach a tentative agreement on territorial marine boundaries. [bab]

1980 June 24

Levi stated in parliament that although border development in health, education and quarantine measures was a priority, it had not yet been implemented due to shortage of staff. [bab]

1980 July

Shooting in Abepura (B&L 1988: 80) [sek]

1980 July 05

5 Indonesian police questioned after entering Papua New Guinea illegally at Weam, looking for an Irianese man who had escaped from prison; returned July 7. [bab]

1980 July

Six women raise the morning star flag at the Governor's office in Jayapura (Osborne 1985: 84) [sek]

1980 August 04

Six West Papuan women attempted to raise a West Papuan flag outside the office of the Governor of Irian Jaya; were arrested and sentenced to four years' imprisonment 3 West Papuans who had crossed the border into West Sepik after being chased by Indonesian police, and who had spent a week in quarantine at Yako, were to be handed over to Papua New Guinea police. [bab]

1980 October

Clement Poye, Papua New Guinea Minister for Media, accepts an invitation to make an official visit to Indonesia to discuss newspaper, television and other media matters. [bab]

1980 November

Civil aviation dispute between Indonesian and Papua New Guinea airlines; Air Nuigini closed Jakarta office, and Garuda sought permission to stop at Port Moresby and to increase its services to the Pacific. Indonesia wanted no change to Air Niugini's existing flights to Indonesia; Following talks, a statement was issued by Indonesia claiming that agreement had been reached, and that no changes would be made to Air Nuigini's service; Transport Minister Okuk disagreed that the talks had resulted in such an agreement, and reacted by cancelling plans for Papua New Guinea pilots to train in Indonesia. [bab]

1980 November 04

Antara reported that West Papuan rebel leader Paulus Kuntly Pesakor, his wife and 7 aides, had surrendered to Indonesian authorities. [bab]

1980 December

Chan was alleged to have told Franzalbert Joku, a Times reporter that he would not hesitate to send troops to assist Indonesia fight against OPM rebels; Chan denied the statement. [bab]

1980 December 08

Major-General Busiri Suryowinoto elected Governor of Irian Jaya by the Irian Jaya Provincial Parliament; Deputy Governor was Isaak Hindom who had taken up office on November 22 1980. [bab]

1980 December 09

Six West Papuan men had illegally crossed into Western Province; 3 at Suki, and others at Kiunga, Ningerum and Morehead. [bab]

1980 December 10

A former West Papuan granted Papua New Guinea citizenship was charged with possessing prohibited literature, relating to OPM and bomb making. [bab]

1980 December 11

Anton Parao, of Melanesian Alliance, a Government partner, announced Melanesian Alliance's disagreement with Chan over the possibility of using force on the border against West Papuans. [bab]

1980 December 11-14

Chan visits Indonesia; Suharto assured Chan that Indonesia did not wish to interfere in its neighbour's affairs; Sir Julius ratified the 1979 Border Agreement; Okuk meanwhile indicated his support for OPM. [bab]

1980 December 13

In Jakarta, Levi and Mochtar Kusumatmaadja sign a treaty determining sea boundaries. [bab]

1980 December 17

120 West Papuans crossed into Western Frovice at Morehead; altogether there were 200 in the Morehead holding camp. [bab]

1980 December 21

Foreign Affairs Secretary, Paulias Matane, announced that 103 Irianese border crossers in Western province would return to Indonesia, and that their entry had not been politically motivated, as they had sought food and medical attention. [bab]

1981

Operasi Galang under General Santoso (Osborne 1985: 145). [sek]

1981

Papenal's deputy commander in Paniai destroys ABRI helicopter and captures 2 intel agents (Osborne 1985: 85). [sek]

1981 January

Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Busiri Suryowinoto, became Governor-elect of Irian Jaya. [bab]

1981 January 21

Matane announces that all future border crossers would be repatriated. [bab]

1981 January 27-29

Preliminary talks held in Jakarta on the subject of an extradition treaty between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Papua New Guinea delegation led by Mr. Wilson Ephraim, First Secretary of Papua New Guinea Embassy in Jakarta. Meeting agreed that further talks would be held. [bab]

1981 January 30

Announcement that Yako and Wabo camps were to be closed; Wabo held 137 and Yako held 41 refugees UNHCR representative, Tom Unwin, said that none of the refugees from Yako and Wabo should be repatriated. [bab]

1981 February 10-12

Joint Border Committee meeting Madang; confirmed the establishment of the Joint Border Committee Meetings in Agreement. [bab]

1981 February 17

19 West Papuan men were to be sent back from Morehead, but j escaped; 16 of them were repatriated, and 3 were charged with illegal entry. [bab]

1981 March (early)

Papua New Guinea Foreign Minister Noel Levi sent a protest note to Vanuatu regarding the Vanuatu Party's support of Rex Rumakiek's office in Port Vila which co-ordinates the West Papuan independence movement. [bab]

1981 March (mid)

A letter seeking USSR arms for Irian Jayan rebels was intercepted in Papua New Guinea; houses searched in Port Moresby. [bab]

1981 May

Border Liaison Meeting held in Port Moresby; Indonesians' advise Papua New Guinea for the first time that the Trans-Irian highway is to be built. [bab]

1981 May 27-29

South Pacific Human Rights Tribunal set up in Port Moresby to publicise the repression of West Papuan by Indonesia; 11 West Papuan permissive residents gave evidence; Indonesian Embassy refused to attend. [bab]

1981 June 01

Wabo and Yako camps closed from 1 June 1981; then refugees went to Port Moresby and elsewhere. [bab]

1981 June 27

Elizier Bonay and Dean Kafiar were deported; John Hamadi. was also meant to have been deported by the Papua New Guinea government; University of Papua New Guinea SRC leader, Ramoi said that this was because of their part in the Human Rights Tribunal. [bab]

1981 June 29

100 students demonstated against deportation; students hid Hamadi. [bab]

1981 July

Elky Bemey (leader of Pemka) attacked Viktoria supporters near Wutung (Osborne 1985: 84). [sek]

1981 July 09

OPM members under Elkey Berney kidnapped 11 people of an opposing OPM faction. [bab]

1981 July 15

Fight at Old Nemo between Elkey Berney's faction and Seth Rumkorem's forces; killed 8 in attack and took 12 prisoners. [bab]

1981 July 27

Three Irianese, Kubia, Pieger and Jebleb who had lived in Papua New Guinea for over 10 years were arrested in West Sepik and deported because they had taken part in armed OPM faction fights. [bab]

1981 July 29

Chan announced that no more refugees would be returned to Indonesia against their will. [bab]

1981 October

58 hostages taken in Genyem by Alex B. Derey (Bemey's second in command (B&L 1988: 71; Osborne 89-92) [sek]

1981 October

Peristiwa Madi. 2,500-13,000 villagers killed with napalm, chemical weapons, and bombs. 3 Bronco planes used (B&L 1988: 81; Osborne 1985: 87-8, 105). [sek]

1981 October (?)

1981 Bemey is killed by his own men over a woman and Alex Derey becomes Papenal commander in chief (Osborne 1985: 90) [sek]

1981 October (?)

Bemey's father tortured by ABRI (Osborne 1985: 89) [sek]

1981 October 05

OPM from Alex (Donald) Derey and Mecky Ovide's group raided a sawmill in Dosay forest. Two employees taken hostage (Osborne 1985). [sek]

1981 October 09

OPM attacks jail in Abepura (B&L 1988: 71; Osborne 1985: 88) [sek]

1981 October 09

OPM leader Elky Berney raided a logging camp about 10-12 km inland from Holtenkamp sawmill 37 km east of Jayapura taking 58 hostages (half of the hostages were later freed). [bab]

1981 October 16

Okuk stated that Papua New Guinea should recognise OPM and that the National Party will do so. [bab]

1981 October 28

7 ABRI troops killed in Wamena (Osborne 1985: 84-5). [sek]

1981 November 09

Foreign Minister Noel Levi presented a white paper on Papua New Guinea's foreign policy to the Papua New Guinea parliament, abandoning universalism and adopting a policy of 'active and selective engagement'. [bab]

1981 November 21‑23

Indonesian airforce planes alleged to have taken part in bombing raids on three valleys in the Wissel Lake region. [bab]

1981 November 23

A new police patrol post was established at Kiunga, near Ok Tedi. [bab]

1981 November 26

Post-Courier reports that in Sinar Harapan Mochtar had warned Papua New Guinea not to take advantage of the economic imbalance between it and Indonesia. Mochtar said this in response to Okuk's claim that 99% of Papua New Guinea supported OPM and charge that Indonesia was neglecting Irian Jaya. [bab]

1981 December 11

Indonesia warns that it will not tolerate Papua New Guinea support for OPM following Okuk's reiteration of National Party support for OPM. [bab]

1981-1982

Bombing in Enarotali (B&L 1988: 71) [sek]

1981-1984

Operasi Sapu Bersih under General Santoso (B&L 1988: 80; Osborne 1985: 87, 146) [sek]

1982

The bodies of Willem Joku, who was implicated in the 9 October attack on the Abepura jail, and Jonas Tu were found decomposing inside of sacks on the beach (Osborne 1985: 144). [sek]

1982 (mid)

James Nyaro takes over leadership of Pemka. [sek]

1982 January 06

Papua New Guinea refuses to renew the visas of two non-diplomatic members of the Indonesian Embassy because of reported spying activities, officially because Papua New Guinea's protocol department could not deal with the 36-member mission. The Indonesian embassy retaliated by not issuing visas to any Papua New Guineans to visit Indonesia. [bab]

1982 April

Four of Rumkorem's men captured. (Osborne 1985: 84 [sek]

1982 April

Okuk criticised transmigrasi in a lecture at the University of Papua New Guinea; Indonesian Embassy issues a newsletter indirectly attacking Okuk; Embassy accused of interfering with Papua New Guinea's internal politics OPM reported Marthin Tabu's execution by Indonesian soldiers who held him captive. [bab]

1982 April 29

Indonesia and Papua New Guinea officials met in Jayapura to discuss delineation of the border. First Congress of National Unity in West Irian held at Oegstgeest Netherlands. Drew together external groups representing OPM, and suspended the Provisional Revolutionary Government and the De Facto Government indefinitely; saw OPM as requiring a people's resistance movement, and not a government in exile. [bab]

1982 May

Rumkorem seeks political asylum, is later granted in Greece. Uri Yoweni becomes Viktoria's Defence Minister, Philemon Yarisetouw becomes TPN commander (Osborne 1985: 93-4). [sek]

1982 May 01

Papua New Guinea recalls its envoy to Jakarta, Benson Gegeyo... [bab]

1982 May 14, 15, 21

Indonesian troops reported to have crossed the border; Indonesia recalls its ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1982 May 14-15

In two separate raids, small armed Indonesian parties freed some hostages taken by Berney in the October 1981 raid at Holtenkamp. [bab]

1982 May 26

Foreign Secretary Matane sends protest note to acting Indonesian ambassador Asirbin. [bab]

1982 May 27

A fourth recent Indonesian incursion reported, to Pendessi village, Papua New Guinea, to demand information about OPM rebels. [bab]

1982 June

Bombing in Manokwari reported by the Nuigini News (Obsourne 1985: 146). [sek]

1982 June

Indonesia denies that Indonesian troops had crossed the border in May; stated the belief that some villagers from Irian Jaya had crossed to free hostages kidnapped by OPM. [bab]

1982 June

Major-General Meliala Sembiring appointed commander of WP. He adopts the "smiling" policy (B&L 1988: 70). [sek]

1982 June 01

Chan still awaiting reply to protest note. [bab]

1982 June 06

Brig.-Gen. Santosa flew by helicopter to a Papua New Guinea mission, at Wasengla, near Imonda, claiming to have lost his bearings or to have been forced down by bad weather. Papua New Guinea general election. [bab]

1982 June 14

Eighteen hostages from the October 1981 sawmill raid released. [bab]

1982 June 25

Six armed Indonesians crossed into West Sepik near Imonda to take back 19 Indonesian citizens who were thought to be OPM supporters. [bab]

1982 June 26

Papua New Guinea's Foreign Minister Noel Levi sent a diplomatic protest note to Indonesia over the incursion. [bab]

1982 June 28

Indonesian incursion by 3 soldiers and a policeman near Weam, Western Province; the 3 soldiers were jailed and attacked by OPM fellow prisoners; the leader was sent to Moresby and then to Jayapura. [One soldier was Javanese, the others were Melanesians]. [bab]

1982 July

Transfer of power from provincial to national. control: Acting on Cabinet decision of 1979, Vanimo-Wutung Road declared national. [bab]

1982 July 01

Levi lodged a diplomatic protest note with the Indonesian Government against the incursion of June 26. [bab]

1982 July 03

An Indonesian helicopter buzzed Wasengla mission 10 West Papuans given deportation orders, Vanimo. [bab]

1982 July 03

Three UNCEN students make a declaration of independence (B&L 1988: 90) [sek]

1982 July 03-04

Second OPM Congress of National Unity held at Haamsteede, Netherlands. [bab]

1982 July 12

Chan criticised Indonesia for suggesting in Suara Karya that Somare would be the next Papua New Guinea leader and would improve Papua New i Guinea-Indonesian relations. [bab]

1982 July 16

A Catholic cleric, Br. Jerome Dunn, alleged to have helped 10 West Papuans avoid deportation from Vanimo. [bab]

1982 July 22

David Balagaise, Irianese illegal immigrant, was to be deported after threatening officers in the Foreign Affairs and Trade Department in Port Moresby. [bab]

1982 August

Rumkorem wins court victory in PNG.       He becomes a media darling (Osborne 1985: 174). [sek]

1982 August 02

Somare returned to government. [bab]

1982 August 04

Treaties relating to the 1979 border agreement with Indonesia signed; involving a radio link with Irian Jaya, traditional border crossing, mapping and marking of the border and formalising joint border committee. [bab]

1982 August 17

Memorandum of Understanding on border survey security signed between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia whereby Papua New Guinea and Indonesia survey teams and military are allowed 20 km into each other's territory. [bab]

1982 August 24-27

First Joint Border Committee meeting held in Bali led by Soedarmono and Matane; discussed traditional border crossing; and need for balanced economic and social development on border. [bab]

1982 September (mid)

Foreign Minister Namaliu visits East Timor and Irian Jaya during his visit to Indonesia Rumkorem and nine followers charged with illegal entry; dismissed by the court; freed after 10 days in custody; allowed to remain in Rabaul to await UN arrangement for a third country to accept Rumkorem as a refugee. [bab]

1982 November 13

Papua New Guinea Defence Forces raided a suspected OPM camp in the Bewani area, destroying houses and gardens, but camp dwellers had fled. [bab]

1982 December

A West Papuan murders the Indonesian driver of an Embassy official in Port Moresby (Osborne 1985: 175). [sek]

1982 December 14

Simon Alom, originally from Irian Jaya, stabbed and killed Meinhard Poluan, an Indonesian Embassy official working as Col. Ismail's driver. Poluan was alleged by Port Moresby authorities to have been in charge of Indonesian intelligence in Port Moresby; Alom charged with the stabbing. [bab]

1983

A team of four geologists attacked by the OPM. Their Indonesian security guard is killed but the geologists are released the same day (Osborne 1985: 97). [sek]

1983 (late)-1984 (early)

Operasi Tumpas launched by Kopassus (B&L 1988: 86) [sek]

1983 January / February

1000 West Papuans reported to have crossed to Papua New Guinea; Irian Jaya's Governor, Izaac Hindom called on Irianese to join with Indonesian armed forces to stamp out OPM; stressed that Irian Jaya was an integral part of Indonesia and was therefore open to transmigration. [bab]

1983 March

Two migrant workers from Sulawesi and four Mee villagers killed in a Papenal attack (Osborne 1985: 97). [sek]

1983 March 31 - April 04

An aerial survey conducted by Papua New Guinea's National Mapping Bureau discovered that the Indonesian Trans-Irian Highway had crossed into Papua New Guinea territory. [bab]

1983 April

A report from Donald Derey of a West Papuan rebel group, was sent to Radio Australia in Port Moresby, alleging that 5 Dutch missionaries had been deported by Indonesian authorities who desired West Papuans to become Muslims; he also accused Indonesian officials of obstructing food supplies to Irianese drought victims. [bab]

1983 April 12

Papua New Guinea government requested an explanation and a joint survey of border road. [bab]

1983 April 13

Papua New Guinea Defence Force troops sent to border. [bab]

1983 April 15

Indonesian government agreed to a meeting of the joint border technical sub-committee in Merauke to discuss road. [bab]

1983 April 18

Papua New Guinea requested that the Merauke meeting be raised to Department head level. [bab]

1983 April 19‑21

Merauke sub-committee recommended that: 1. location of road be determined by May 11 satellite scan; 2. Indonesians state that border breaches have occurred; 3. no further work be done on road; 4. road be closed and incursions confirmed; and 5. additional border markers be placed on road and that police provide security for survey teams. [bab]

1983 April 23

Meeting in Port Moresby between West Melanesian Socialist Party members and De facto government members and Grass Root members; the Grass Root members support the Provisional Government, but De facto government supporters were in the majority, and a Revolutionary council was set up. [bab]

1983 May (early)

32 West Papuans including 2 OPM leaders, Maks Jim Tago and Lawrence Charles Mider, were jailed in Vanimo for illegal entry. [bab]

1983 May 05

Nuigini Nuis reported that a National Intelligence Organisation officer had been sent to Jayapura to accompany 4 Papua New Guinea provincial premiers on an inspection tour of Indonesian border projects, without informing the premiers; premiers furious with what they regarded as spying. [bab]

1983 July 07

Papua New Guinea Cabinet directs Papua New Guinea Defence Force to supply a sufficient number of troops to protect forthcoming joint border survey. [bab]

1983 July 25-27

Second Joint Border Committee meeting in Port Moresby, held early because of the discovery of the Trans-Irian Highway incursion; Indonesian delegation led by Sec-Gen Sudharmono; Papua New Guinea delegation led by Matane; decision made to monitor all border crossers by setting up checkpoints; traditional crossers allowed free movement, aviation arrangement to allow emergency border flights. [bab]

1983 August

Indonesian Foreign Minister Mochtar visits Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1983 September

Indonesian employee of Continental Oil is killed at Inanwatan in the Bird's Head region by four people who protected their sago stands with bows and arrows (Osborne 1985: 97). [sek]

1983 September

Papua New Guinea's defence minister Epel Tito while in Canberra admits that Papua New Guinea may well be invaded by Indonesia in the next ten to twenty years; Tito removed to another position; Mochtar responded by stating that Indonesia had no such plans; Papua New Guinea approved plans for Papua New Guinea Defence Force border patrols to be increased. [bab]

1983 September 12-14

Joint border liaison meeting held in Sorong to discuss joint survey. [bab]

1983 September 22

Tribal leader Derek Mebri killed by Kopassandha [ed: kopassus? this in not mentioned in Osborne 1985:97] commandos. The report to the provincial army chief in Jayapura says that the killing was an accident. Derek Mebri was the father of Alex Mebri a member of Mambesak (B&L 1988: 86; Osborne 1985: 97). [sek]

1983 October 19

Joint border survey team begins survey of border. [bab]

1983 November 24

Seth Rumkorem, Fred Athaboe and Louis Nussy fly to Greece. [bab]

1983 November 30

Arnold Ap arrested, as well as other prominent West Papuans. [bab]

1983 December 03-10

Somare and Siaguru (as Minister assisting the Prime Minister) visit Indonesia; Siaguru held talks with Mochtar, and decided on establishing hotlines between the offices of the President and the Prime Minister, the Foreign Affairs Ministers, and heads of the Foreign Affairs departments. [bab]

1983 December 20

Joint border survey ends, due to heavy rain and withdrawal of Indonesian group due to financial problems. [bab]

1984 February (early)

Some West Papuans in the Indonesian paratroopers unit Brimod defected to the OPM.

1984 February (late)

Joel Awom, the second in command of BRIMOB for West Papua, defects with 100 soldiers. They break into the arms depot of Battalion 751 seizing automatic rifles, machine guns, and ammunition (Osborne 1985: 99). [sek]

1984 February (late)

Operasi Satay launched to attempt to retrieve the stolen guns in the border regions (Osborne 1985: 100). [sek]

1984 February 05

OPM flag raised at Provincial Assembly building; at least one OPM member shot and some solders deserted. [bab]

1984 February 10

At least 95 West Papuans fled to Wutung, Papua New Guinea, following fighting with Indonesian forces. [bab]

1984 February 11

Planned Jayapura raid by OPM; organised partly by Rumkorem and partly by West Melanesian Socialist Party and Defacto government. [bab]

1984 February 13

OPM planned to make a large scale attack called "Operation Freedom" on this date, but the coordinated operation failed. Elias Warsey, a Papuan corporal in ABRI is shot for raising a morning star flag in front of the DPRD. A Papuan janitor near the scene is also shot dead (B&L 1988: 71; Osborne 1985: 86, 99). [sek]

1984 Feb.13-May 1984

8,000 Papuan refugees flee across the border into PNG (Osborne 1985: 100-2). [sek]

1984 February 16

Papua New Guinea embassy in Jakarta asked Indonesia for information to explain refugee crossings. [bab]

1984 February 20

Namaliu sent a telex to Mochtar seeking information. [bab]

1984 February 23

In a second telex to Mochtar, PM Somare and Namaliu set a 48 hour deadline for an explanation of the crossings from Indonesia. [bab]

1984 February 24

Somare states that all border crossers will be tried for illegal entry. [bab]

1984 February 25

Somare receives an explanation from Indonesia. [bab]

1984 February 27

80 West Papuans charged with illegal entry; all plead guilty; hearing adjourned until March 21 UNHCR provides K2500 for tents and food; promise a further K5000. [bab]

1984 February 28

Mochtar wrote to Namaliu confirming that Irianese had crossed border because of clashes between troops and rebels in Jayapura. Namaliu presents statement to Parliament on border crossers; debate ensues; Gabriel Ramoi (Aitape-Lumi) stated that Papua New Guinea had a better claim to Irian Jaya than Indonesia; Mark Ipuia (Lagaip-Porgera) said Papua New Guinea showed it was scared of Indonesia. [bab]

1984 February 29

Four West Papuans seek asylum in Netherlands Embassy, Jakarta, after seeking information relating to Arnold Ap's detention. [bab]

1984 March (late)

The 'Strategic Basis' document on Australia's defence policies leaked to the National Times; document identifies Indonesia as Australia's greatest threat, and stresses the need for Papua New Guinea to suppress antiIndonesian rebel activity in its territory. [bab]

1984 March (late) or April (early)

Indonesian paratroops dropped into Irian Jaya border areas; fighting between Yuruf and Amgotoro. [bab]

1984 March (mid)

Mochtar announced that shooting had occurred in Jayapura and that about 27 Melanesian soldiers had deserted in February. [bab]

1984 March 01

Somare offers Papua New Guinea to act as 'honest broker' between OPM and Indonesian government. [bab]

1984 March 02

Noel Levi (New Ireland) said Papua New Guinea should not join ASEAN until the Irian Jaya issue had been resolved. [bab]

1984 March 05

Total number of refugees in Vanimo is 283; all adult males were charged with illegal entry on reaching Vanimo. [bab]

1984 March 11

Mochtar allowed the 4 West Papuans in the Dutch Embassy to leave for the Netherlands, saying they were not political refugees, but wanted a 'free ticket'. [bab]

1984 March 12

Micah Wes (Vanimo‑Green River) said that Indonesian soldiers had destroyed food gardens near Wutung recently, and called for compensation. [bab]

1984 March 13

Gai Duwabane (Daulo), former Defence Minister, claimed that Indonesia had plans to invade Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 March 14

Ronald ToVue, East New Britain Premier, criticised Namaliu for adopting an 'evasive and fearful' approach towards Indonesia, and for denying all eyewitness accounts from the border. [bab]

1984 March 15

Thomas Negints (Tambul-Nebilyer) Chairman of the Citizenship Advisory Committee, halted applications from Irian Jayans for Papua New Guinea citizenship and called for stricter criteria for assessing applications. Pius Sangumai (Kandrian-Gloucester) called for compulsory adult military training in order to defend Papua New Guinea from Indonesian attack. [bab]

1984 March 15-17

Special border liaison meeting held in Jayapura to discuss events of February; Matane attends but is met by Indonesians of much lower official standing; Papua New Guinea had requested the meeting be held at Joint Border Committee level, and received agreement from Indonesia on March 8; Papua New Guinea government sources reported that the Indonesian officials would not discuss the circumstances leading to the border crossings; Indonesian officials required the names of all border crossers before any decisions about the border crossers' future were made; the number of soldiers who had defected and the names of those who had left was requested by Papua New Guinea; Papua New Guinea supplied the number of those who had crossed; Indonesia admitted that there had been an incident but gave no details, said that police had been used to disperse a crowd; Papua New Guinea delegates said that border residents had requested compensation payments; the issue was referred to the Joint Border Committee of July; the Indonesian delegation did not agree to the level of meeting asked for by Papua New Guinea; no Jakarta officials present, so Indonesian delegates could not discuss policy; according to one source, the Indonesian delegation refused to believe that so many refugees had crossed, saying that only two had crossed, both known criminals. [bab]

1984 March 17

Antara reported that the 300 Irianese who had crossed to Papua New Guinea would soon be repatriated, as a result of the discussions at the Special Border Liaison Meeting. [bab]

1984 March 19

Namaliu, commenting on the Antara report, stated that an agreement was yet to be reached between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia over repatriation and that the Indonesian delegation had insisted that a list of names be provided by Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 March 20

Matane stated that the Papua New Guinea government might repatriate some refugees if their safety was guaranteed by Indonesia. [bab]

1984 March 21

Indonesian youths protest at Dutch assistance to the Irianese youths flown to the Netherlands Seventy‑three border crossers convicted of illegal entry into Papua New Guinea and sentenced to imprisonment for six weeks; a further 38 were found guilty with no convictions recorded Namaliu announced that OPM rebels and army defectors would be sent to a third country. [bab]

1984 March 23

100 West Papuans villagers from Woro and Kwana cross to Vanimo. Matane tells Soepomo that Papua New Guinea was very concerned about the crossings. Altogether 420 had crossed the border since February. [bab]

1984 March 24

Namaliu announced that none of the 100 recent crossers would be i charged with illegal entry. [bab]

1984 March 26

James Nyaro of Pemka kills Indonesian airplane passengers in Yuruf and takes Swiss pilot hostage. The Papuan Independent Organization (PIO) demands K1.5 Million in ransom (Osborne 1985: xiiv, 103; B&L 1988: 72-3). [sek]

1984 March 26

Kidnapping of Swiss pilot Werner Wyder and three others; two Indonesians of the party were killed and Wyder and a West Papuan teacher held. [bab]

1984 March 27

Alleged border incursion by Indonesian jets over Papua New Guinea's Green River government station while performing military exercises. [bab]

1984 March 27‑28

Another 270 West Papuans flee fighting by crossing to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 March 28

The 73 jailed West Papuans are released. [bab]

1984 March 29

Papua New Guinea formally protests to Indonesia regarding border incursion of Indonesian jets, calling for a meeting; threatens to expel defence attache at the Indonesian embassy in Port Moresby for not informing the Papua New Guinea government of the defence exercises being held in the border area; Mochtar replied by delaying the meeting for two weeks until after his visit to USSR; Namaliu expressed his dissatisfaction with the Indonesian response; Ambassador Soepomo stated the planes were not from Indonesia. [bab]

1984 April

Arnold Ap murdered (Osborne 1985: 148-54) (B&L 1988: 125-136) [sek]

1984 April

More border crossers arrive in Papua New Guinea, bringing total to about 3000. [bab]

1984 April 03

ABRI denies the allegation that there was any jet incursion into Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea government protested to Australia over the leaking of defence documents (Strategic Basis) to the National Times, which said that Papua New Guinea should suppress OPM rebels and that Australia would come to Papua New Guinea's defence if attacked by Indonesia; Namaliu sent a second protest note to Indonesia, complaining that reply to first note was inadequate, again threatening to expel defence attache. [bab]

1984 April 05

Papua New Guinea Ambassador Amini received a note denying jet incursion; Indonesia recalled Ismail. [bab]

1984 April 07

250 more West Papuans arrive at Kamberatoro. [bab]

1984 April 08

Pilot Werner Wyder released. Up to 1000 West Papuans now arrived in Papua New Guinea since February. [bab]

1984 April 09

Brig-Gen. R.K. Sembiring Meliala accused Papua New Guinea of harbouring rebels; denied jet incursion. [bab]

1984 April 11

Colonel Ismail left Papua New Guinea, having been advised by Papua New Guinea authorities that he would be expelled if he did not leave voluntarily. [bab]

1984 April 13-17

Namaliu arrived in Jakarta, for talks, offered to help Indonesia "understand the culture and values of its Melanesian people"; Namaliu asked to meet Murdani, and met Mochtar, Defence and Security Minister Poniman and Minister for Interior Supardjo Rustam; discuss airspace violations, Namaliu demanded notification of future exercises and cessation of border operations; noting cultural problems between Indonesians and Irianese; talks deadlock; Indonesia agrees to pay K23,000 to help support border crossers; resolve that repatriation would be arranged without UNHCR although Papua New Guinea wanted involvement, because Indonesia said this would complicate the process of repatriation; agree to a schedule to review the border agreement expiring in 1984; Mochtar demanded an explanation for Ismail's expulsion. [bab]

1984 April 16

Namaliu announces that Indonesia has guaranteed safety of returnees; Gen. Benny Murdani again denied that Green River jets were Indonesian. [bab]

1984 April 17

Joint Communique between Papua New Guinea and Indonesian Foreign Ministers. [bab]

1984 April 25

Refugee Co-ordinating Committee set up, comprised of officials and Bishop Etheridge. [bab]

1984 April 26

Total of about 1800 West Papuans crossed to West Sepik since February. [bab]

1984 April 29

Mochtar claims that 1140 Irianese will be repatriated early May. [bab]

1984 April 30 ‑ May 2

Seminar on Development in Irian Jaya held in Jakarta between mid-April and May 1 1984 Approximately 2,500 West Papuans arrive in the Western Province, north of Kiunga Total number of West Papuans crossers in the border area estimated to be 4500. [bab]

1984 April 30

Four Irianese officials had crossed into Western province allegedly in search of border crossers, and were subsequently charged with illegal entry. [bab]

1984 May (late) - June 7

Talks held in Kieta to discuss review of border agreement and to discuss repatriation; Matane attended. [bab]

1984 May 07

Arnold Ap's murder and the murders of Eddy Mofu, Nani Rumainum and one other reported [bab]

1984 May 15

News of ABC Nyaro interview became public 55 OPM members reportedly surrendered 130 km southwest of Jayapura, according to Jakarta's army information office. [bab]

1984 May 15-18

Indonesian and Papua New Guinea mapping teams meet in Port Moresby to discuss the joint border survey. [bab]

1984 May 17

Regular Papua New Guinea Defence Force border patrols established. [bab]

1984 May 18-19

ABRI exercises held near Jayapura. [bab]

1984 May 21

Namaliu informs Parliament that he was not informed of the ABRI exercises in advance; Statement titled 'Recent Developments on the Common Border and in Relations with Indonesia'. [bab]

1984 May 24

Diro pressures Papua New Guinea government not to appease Indonesia; Okuk, Levi and Dutton call for leniency with regard to border crossers, and to allow them to remain in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 May 25

Talks due to be held regarding repatriation in Vanimo; Matane present but Izaac Hindom did not attend; repatriation plan cancelled indefinitely ABC chairman Ken Myer was overruled by the ABC board when he said that Nyaro interview should not be shown; Myer was criticised for not upholding the independence of the ABC; Namaliu threatens to deport ABC journalist Sean Dorney because previously Papua New Guinea had been assured‑that the interview would not be televised. [bab]

1984 May 27

Antara reported that Indonesia and Papua New Guinea had agreed that repatriation of 521 refugees would begin in the 'near future'; the repatriation would be preceded by a 'public relations programme' to inform refugees through Hindom and Matane. [bab]

1984 May 28

A further 600 West Papuans enter Papua New Guinea near Wasengla mission, bringing the estimated total to around 7400. Namaliu announces ban on ABC journalists. [bab]

1984 May 30

Indonesia's Minister of Justice and Acting Foreign Minister, Mr. Ali Said, praised Papua New Guinea's stand on banning ABC journalists, saying it showed Papua New Guinea's independence; Indonesian Tempo journalist, Susanto Pudjomartono held for questioning in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 June

Henk Joku allegedly had secret talks with Gary Scott, who was in August accused of seeking to supply weapons to the OPM, while Joku was in Australia for a World Council of Indigenous Peoples Conference; Joku also makes public appeals for arms. [bab]

1984 June 05

Namaliu defended the Papua New Guinea government's position over repatriation, saying that to interview 8,000 refugees is a mammoth task, in response to reports from Indonesia criticising Papua New Guinea's slowness. [bab]

1984 June 06

Marpaung conceded that some border crossers might not wish to return to Irian Jaya and said that they would not be forced to return. [bab]

1984 June 10

Somare said in Sydney that if the ABC apologised for filming the Nyaro interview the ABC could stay in Port Moresby. Mochtar, in his first public comments on the killing of Arnold Ap, denied that Ap had been murdered for political reasons and suggests he had been killed while escaping from custody. [bab]

1984 June 10-11

9 OPM members arrested by Papua New Guinea police. [bab]

1984 June 11

Mochtar said Indonesia required the names of about 60 dissidents before any repatriation could begin, and that not all 8,000 names would be required, the 60 included army deserters and OPM sympathisers, held at Vanimo; Mochtar said no one should be forced to repatriate. [bab]

1984 June 20

Antara reported that Irian Jaya's deputy governor, Sugiyono, had said.that hundreds of Irianese had already voluntarily repatriate. [bab]

1984 June 21

Reported Indonesian crossing of border and raid on a West Sepik village Suwampa, by 53 Indonesian soldiers. [bab]

1984 June 24

Australian Opposition MP, Hodgman, tours border camps, and claims that none want to return to Irian Jaya, and that Australia should press for UNHCR involvement. [bab]

1984 June 25

OPM member Mathew Mayer who had been a permissive resident in Papua~New Guinea arrived in Australia; applied for refugee status in Australia in early July. [bab]

1984 June 26

Australian Immigration Minister Mr West said he and Foreign Minister Hayden had been concerned at reports that Hank Joku had requested Aborigines to supply arms to OPM forces, and that Joku had been questioned and had denied the allegation. About 9000 West Papuans believed to have crossed into Papua New Guinea since February. [bab]

1984 June 28

Papua New Guinea handed Ambassador Soepomo a diplomatic note protesting at Indonesian troop incursion of 1984 June 21; demanded compensation; Indonesian ambassador Soepomo warned by Papua New Guinea government that the issue would be raised at international and regional meetings if the note did not receive a satisfactory reply. Schoolteacher from Amanab district taken hostage by OPM ‑ released unharmed on July 31, after threats from Papua New Guinea government. [bab]

1984 June 29

Mochtar implied that an anti‑Indonesian vote over East Timor in the ALP conference would lead to a major break between Indonesia and Australia. [bab]

1984 June 30

Mochtar Kusumaatmadja and Murdani blame rebels for border strife, saying that the Indonesians who had crossed into Papua New Guinea destroying the gardens at Suwampa were OPM members trying to make Indonesia appear in a bad light. [bab]

1984 July 05

Home Affairs Minister Soepardjo Rustam denied allegations by LBH of human rights violations in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1984 July 06

Indonesia formally denied border incursion; implication that damage was done by OPM members. Papua New Guinea decides to strengthen its border security forces. [bab]

1984 July 10

Papua New Guinea sends troops to border to hunt for OPM forces. Dysentry and malaria spread through Black Water camp. [bab]

1984 July 11

Namaliu went to seventeenth ASEAN ministerial meeting, Jakarta and raised the subject of border violations with General Benny Viurdani. [bab]

1984 July 12

Murdani assured Namaliu that all military exercises undertaken by Indonesia in the border area would be announced to Papua New Guinea in advance. Australia's ALP passed a resolution that the party recognise that the border crossings issue could be resolved only by Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [bab]

1984 July 18

Sub-committee of JBC meeting held in Jakarta; Papua New Guinea delegation led by Mataio Rabura; to discuss repatriation and border development. [bab]

1984 July 20

OPM leader, Lawrence Myder was arrested in West Sepik, with two assistants. [bab]

1984 July 21

First Papua New Guinea-Indonesia dialogue held at University of Papua New Guinea. Representatives from both countries attend. [bab]

1984 July 23-27

Joint border committee meeting in Surabaya; draft i repatriation agreement worked out; amendments to border agreement drafted; Indonesia sent 28 delegates, Papua New Guinea 18 led by Matane. [bab]

1984 July 24

Radio Australia's John Lombard said that Indonesian military had claimed RAAF had carried out spying missions over East Timor. [bab]

1984 July 31

Paulias Matane announced that the Papua New Guinea Defence Force would escort 9,000 border crossers back to Indonesia in the coming weeks, without UNHCR involvement. Those active in the OPM movement could r choose either permissive residency or resettlement in a third country. [bab]

1984 August

An Australian ex-army officer, Gary Scott, assisted OPM members with planning guerrilla actions and with recruiting mercenaries. A team representing church groups and including Mark Raper, S.J., interviewed border crossers and found that "many, if not all" of those interviewed had a genuine fear of persecution if repatriated. Gen. Murdani stated that 2000 Irianese border crossers had repatriated. A statement prepared by Seth Rumkorem was read to the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations by OPM representative, Adolf Tompoh. [bab]

1984 August (end of month)

Mochtar Kusumaatmadja stated that Indonesia had already given assurances of the safety of refugees many times. [bab]

1984 August 01

Mathew Mayer was refused refugee status by Australia's Determination of Refugee Status committee, but was being considered for residency on humanitarian grounds; later, it was decided that he should return to Papua New Guinea before 31 1984 August . Indonesia provided written assurance of the safety of returnees. [bab]

1984 August 02

Namaliu said UNHCR would be asked to assist in finding third countries for those found to be 'genuine' refugees. [bab]

1984 August 03

Pastor Roy Woods of the Evangelical Mission of Rumginae near Ningerum discovers people dying of starvation in border camps. Papua New Guinea Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade official reported that Indonesian officials were to visit refugees in camps to reassure them of their safety after returning to Indonesia. [bab]

1984 August 08

About 100 Papua New Guinea university students marched to the Indonesian embassy demanding UNHCR involvement in any repatriation operations; Somare squashed Lini's attempt to raise the issue at the Commonwealth Heads of Government regional meeting in Port Moresby. [bab]

1984 August 10

Soepardjo Roestam, Indonesian Home Affairs Minister, requested list of names of hard-core OPM in Papua New Guinea; UNHCR representative, Michael Schergold, allowed to visit border crossers in Sandaun at Kamberatoro and Green River'. [bab]

1984 August 12

Warren Dutton, North Fly opposition member, charges the government with 'criminal neglect' over deaths of 51 refugees at Komopkin. [bab]

1984 August 13

Government admits responsibility for deaths of 51 at Komopkin. [bab]

1984 August 14

Namaliu said that the deaths would delay repatriation. [bab]

1984 August 15

Papua New Guinea government denied it had tried to starve refugees back to Irian Jaya. [bab]

1984 August 20

Gabriel Ramoi, Pangu backbencher, alleges the Papua New Guinea government deliberately starved refugees to force them to return home to Irian Jaya. Papua New Guinea government sources said that 93 Irianese border crossers had died since April; and stated that OPM was the main cause of the crossings. [bab]

1984 August 21-22

Special border liaison meeting held at Port Moresby; prepared 'Framework of Principles for the Return of People who cross the Common Border Country...'; signed by Namaliu, j given to Indonesia for revisions; Namaliu wanted Indonesia to ' formally guarantee promise of safety of returnees. [bab]

1984 August 28

Joint survey and mapping team to close infringing Indonesian road and set up additional border markers between the Bensbach and Fly rivers. [bab]

1984 August 31

Indonesia approved a repatriation agreement with Papua New Guinea to begin procedure on 17 September Peter Hastings banned indefinitely from visiting Indonesia because of his ' writings about Ap's death (some months later again permitted to enter I Indonesia). [bab]

1984 September 03

Beginning of ICJ visit to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 September 05

Namaliu stated the need for adequate guarantees for Irianese refugees' safety prior to repatriation [bab]

1984 September 06

Australia sought a guarantee from Papua New Guinea that Mathew Mayer would not be handed over to Indonesian authorities if deported to Papua New Guinea; Papua New Guinea later revoked Mayer's permissive residency. [bab]

1984 September 10

Namaliu stated that repatriation would not be able to take place as planned, on 17 September, UNHCR provided a donation to refugees amounting to $804,950. [bab]

1984 September 13

Renagi Lohia, ambassador to UN, questioned the use of raising the border issue at the UN. Namaliu urges Australia to accept refugees for settlement if border crossers are determined to be refugees, despite negative responses by Australia to date. About 500 more refugees arrived at Kugol west of Tabubil, in the past few days. [bab]

1984 September 18

The National Executive Council approved K1 million for minor village level border projects for border development. Dutton announced that Awin people of Kiunga were willing to accommodate crossers in the Kiunga area, and to work land for them. [bab]

1984 September 24

Mochtar said that Indonesia objected to having to assure safety of its own citizens, and considered that further talks would be necessary to reach agreement, predicting repatriation would not commence before late October. Foreign Affairs official Laurence Sapien charged with assaulting two West Papuan women at Vanimo camp on 7 July. [bab]

1984 September 25

Mochtar Kusumaatmadja seeks some amendments to the agreement so that ABRI is not included as separate from the Indonesian government. [bab]

1984 October

Indonesian and Papua New Guinea army and police personnel conducted a joint border survey patrol in the southern section of the border. [bab]

1984 October

OPM troops kill 25 ABRI troops at a base near the mouth of the Tami River (Osborne 1985: 189). [sek]

1984 October (?)

DPR member Isaac Saujay from Irian Jaya said Papua New Guinea had made the attack on Indonesia in the UN because of pressure from domestic opposition groups opposed to Somare's foreign policies. He said that the Papua New Guinea opposition groups saw transmigration as Javanisation, and that they feared Indonesian expansionism. [bab]

1984 October (mid)

The Federal Court of Australia ruled on Mathew Mayer's case and Justice Davies directed that the Immigration Minister provide the reasons for refusing Mayer's application. [bab]

1984 October 01

Namaliu addressed the UN regarding Papua New Guinea's grievances against Indonesia, claiming only once out of several occasions did Indonesia publicly apologise for a border incursion. [bab]

1984 October 04

The Indonesian Ambassador to UN, Ali Alatas, said Indonesia was painfully surprised by Namaliu's address; said Indonesia had shown great restraint. [bab]

1984 October 05

Kusumaatmadja claims Papua New Guinean interference in Indonesia's internal affairs; claims Indonesia is 'too patient' with Papua New Guinea. Namaliu claims that Papua New Guinea has a right to ask questions, and had not interfered with Indonesia's internal affairs. [bab] Father Momis, opposition leader, met James Nyaro at Kamberatoro Catholic mission, discussing OPM operations and Papua New Guinea policies and future of government. [bab]

1984 October 15

Siaguru, Acting Foreign Minister, said that Papua New Guinea had received guarantees from Indonesia that refugees would be safe, and that repatriation would begin. A verification exercise would be held later in October. [bab]

1984 October 30

New border agreement signed by Namaliu and Kusumaatmadja in Port Moresby; Vlochtar invites Papua New Guinea to set up consulate at Jayapura; a joint verification tour of border camps in Papua New Guinea to be conducted with Papua New Guinea and Indonesian delegates. [bab]

1984 November

ABRI patrol enters PNG looking for OPM members responsible for the October killings (Osborne 1985: 189). [sek]

1984 November 03

Indonesian delegation to Black Water camp attacked by refugees; 9 men later charged with assault Indonesian protest to Papua New Guinea Government that officials had not been offered sufficient protection. [bab]

1984 November 06

The 9 men charged for the attack on the Indonesian delegation appeared in Vanimo court; case delayed successively until January 18. [bab]

1984 November 07

Demonstration outside Papua New Guinea embassy in Jakarta. [bab]

1984 November 08

Papua New Guinea's National Security Council met after reports of fighting near Wutung in Papua New Guinea between OPM and Indonesian troops; Papua New Guinea troops sent to the border. [bab]

1984 November 09

Papua New Guinea apologised to Indonesia for incident at Black Water, claims those responsible would be brought to justice Indonesian forces reported to be pursuing OPM fighters in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1984 November 10

Somare orders troops to border, Mochtar interpreted Somare's action as tightening security against OPM; Papua New Guinea did not protest against the border violation reported the previous day. [bab]

1984 November 18

Indonesia postponed repatriation until Papua New Guinea government could provide security for verification team. [bab]

1984 November 21

Namaliu had cautiously noted that repatriation would begin and continue slowly. [bab]

1984 November 27

Approximately 650 more refugees crossed into Sandaun. Raymond Hall, UNHCR special envoy, visited Sandaun camps early December 1984 8 OPM followers of Seth Rumkorem arrived in Vanimo and were charged with illegal entry; appeared in Vanimo court on December 18. [bab]

1984 December

Eight OPM members captured in PNG, repatriated and then executed (B&L 1988: 101) [sek]

1984 December 12

UNHCR offered K435,000 for next three months' support of border crossers. Namaliu in Indonesia for formal ratification of the new border agreement; agreement calls for establishment of working group of specialists to discuss border security; notification on frontier military operations; compensation payments in case of damage caused by incursions; Indonesia agreed to UNHCR monitoring of repatriation. [bab]

1984 December 20

The 8 OPM members who arrived in Papua New Guinea in early December were deported after being in Papua New Guinea for two weeks; it was later reported that they had died a month after being repatriated due to being injected by an unknown chemical (Niugini Nius. Feb. 15, 1985) They had crossed many, times earlier and had deportation orders signed against them; Papua New Guinea's NIO believed that they were spying on OPM, and sought to deport any spies. [bab]

1984 December 21

Namaliu replaced as Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister by John Giheno. [bab]

1984 December 22

99 or 102 refugees repatriated from the Black Water camp; no UNHCR involvement nor Papua New Guinea monitoring of the process. [bab]

1984 December 27

Giheno claims the repatriation had been voluntary. [bab]

1985 January 04

Dr Mochtar said 2000 of 11000 border crossers in Papua New Guinea had now returned to Indonesian territory voluntarily. Alan Smith, expatriate extension studies lecturer at the University of Papua New Guinea, interviewed Geradus Thomy in border area, Western Province. [bab]

1985 January 18-21

Hearing at Vanimo of the 9 who had been charged with attacking the Indonesian delegation; 3 were put on 12 months' probation, the rest acquitted. [bab]

1985 February 05

Somare said Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Hayden was free to visit border camps although two weeks before Foreign Affairs Minister John Giheno had said it was unlikely that Hayden could go there. [bab]

1985 February 17

Hayden was denied permission to visit Papua New Guinea border camps. [bab]

1985 March 13

Boyamo Sali quit as Papua New Guinea Defence Minister. [bab]

1985 March 23

Several outspoken Irianese refugees and their families were moved from Black Water to Telefomin. [bab]

1985 April

Geradus Thomy, OPM leader, wrote to Fly premier, Semai Aitowai, threatening to use violence if Papua New Guinea forced refugees to repatriate; Aitowai offered to resettle 7,000 refugees in Fly province. [bab]

1985 April (late)

About 30 OPM soldiers captured 2 helicopters on operations for Shell Oil and kidnapped 3 crewmembers (2 Dutch and an Indonesian), who were soon after freed on payment of a ransom equivalent to $A11,180. [bab]

1985 April 08

OPM hold a Papua New Guinea helicopter and crew who mistakenly landed in their secret camp. [bab]

1985 April 13‑23

Refugee Council of Australia interviewed 'dozens of people at Kamberatoro' and found that none wanted to be repatriated. [bab]

1985 April 18

Acting Foreign Affairs Minister, Tony Bais, said that the Niugini Nlus report of a revised repatriation agreement postponing repatriation of crossers for 12 months was false. [bab]

1985 April 21

Utula Samaria, Premier of Morobe, and Alexis Sarei, premier of North Solomons, offered to settle refugee families temporarily. [bab]

1985 April 30

Papua New Guinea's National Security Council ordered the removal of an OPM camp in West Sepik. [bab]

1985 May

Narakobi begins a court action regarding refugees' rights within Papua New Guinea; 5 refugees from Black Water (including Mrs. Ap) came to Port Moresby to act as key witnesses; case deferred until August. [bab]

1985 May

Two-hundred houses near Enarotali were burned down [sek]

1985 May (early)

Border Liaison Meeting held in Port Moresby. Indonesian delegation led by Bas Jouwe, Bupati of Jayapura. Both parties agreed not to involve UNHCR in repatriations. [bab]

1985 May (mid)

Papua New ‑Guinea Foreign Affairs Minister Giheno announced that Papua New Guinea Ambassador Amini and Indonesian Armed Forces Commander Murdani met for talks on developments in Irian Jaya and reports of last JBC meeting. [bab]

1985 May 08-10

200 Papua New Guinea soldiers and a police squad force the West Sepik OPM camp to move; operations authorised by National Security Council; two OPM soldiers, Max Rumbiak and Ringo Hamong, were discovered hiding in a cave and were arrested; ten others were also found. [bab]

1985 May 13

Between 36 and 50 border crossers return to Irian Java, accompanied by 10 Papua New Guinea officials; UNHCR not allowed to monitor repatriation beyond the departure from Vanimo Papua New Guinea team spoke to two groups who had voluntarily repatriated in December 1984 at Arso and Tanahmerah; visited transmigration sites and resettlement areas in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1985 May 16

Mecky Salosa, alleged to be responsible for Wyder's kidnapping, and for the kidnapping of a Papua New Guinea teacher, captured at Kamberatoro. [bab]

1985 May 18

Drs. F.X. Suryanto Sriwardoyo denied that any of the 99 repatriated on 22 December 1984 were killed or arrested, calling Niugini Nius report'slander'. [bab]

1985 May 24

Mochtar reported to have said that the OPM 'might try to stir rebellion in Papua New Guinea to establish an independent Papuan state'. [bab]

1985 May 27

Twenty border crossers from Merauke charged with illegal entry. [bab]

1985 May 30

The UN proposed sending a mission to both sides of Irian Jaya‑Papua New Guinea border to draw up long term development plans to ease tensions, under the auspices of the UN Development Program. [bab]

1985 June (late)

Another 2,000 refugees reported to have entered Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1985 June 01-02

Inter-Non-Governmental Conference on Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) Matters (INGI) took place in Amsterdam. [bab]

1985 June 10

Sixty-six people voluntarily repatriated at night under supervision of Papua New Guinea security personnel and UNHCR representative, from Vanimo. [bab]

1985 June 11

Indonesia announces that it will set up colour televisions in eleven eastern districts in Irian Jaya. [bab]

1985 June 18(?)

Two-day border liaison meeting held in Jakarta to discuss tightened border security. [bab]

1985 June 22(?)

Four West Papuans captured during May Papua New Guinea Defence Force border operations in West Sepik province were deported to Jayapura from Wewak (may have occurred July 12). [bab]

1985 June 27

Five Irianese from Merauke arrive in Australia by canoe from Papua New Guinea at Thursday Island. [bab]

1985 June / July

517 Papuans were killed in Kamopa (B&L 1988: 81) [sek]

1985 July 08

Ambassador Marpaung stated that the five Irianese refugees on Thursday Island would not be harmed if they returned to Indonesia. Alan Smith left Papua New Guinea after his visa was not renewed as a result of his interview with OPM leader Gen. Geradus Thorny in January. [bab]

1985 July 10

Somare says border crossers will not be resettled in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1985 July 11

Accord signed between Rumkorem and Prai healing their previous rift (B&L 1988: 64). [sek]

1985 July 11

Exiled OPM leaders Seth Rumkorem and Jacob Prai sign an agreement (the 'Port Vila Declaration') in Vanuatu to cooperate; Rumkorem to head the OPM military and Prai to lead in political matters Technical survey sub‑committee of JBC agrees to place more border pillars by 1987. [bab]

1985 July 12

Amnesty International reported that on this day 4 Irianese, Nabot Wanma, Ones Surontouw, Isaak Waroumi and Abraham Hamong, were forcibly repatriated and tortured, facing serious charges in Indonesia. [bab]

1985 July 13

Somare, while visiting Australia, suggests that Australia ease Papua New Guinea's financial burdens by resettling some Irianese refugees. [bab]

1985 July 22

Amnesty International reported that on this day 3 of 4 Irianese, Nabot Wanma, Ones Surontouw, Isaak Waroumi and Abraham Hamong, who had been detained in Wewak for illegal entry into Papua New Guinea, were forcibly repatriated and tortured, facing serious charges in Indonesia. [bab]

1985 July 26

Chris Hurford, Australian Immigration Minister, claimed that if the government allowed the 5 Irianese on Thursday Island to stay in Australia, hundreds of others would follow. [bab]

1985 August

During the trials of 6 West Sepik villagers charged with setting up a para-military force to assist the OPM, the villagers alleged that various government officials and parliamentarians had requested them to arrange the meetings with OPM leaders; several Papua New Guinea leaders were named by the villagers. [bab]

1985 August 01

Twelve Irianese refugees were voluntarily repatriated, according to Antara, bringing the total number of those repatriated to around 160. [bab]

1985 August 02

Antara reported that 700 Indonesians had returned to Irian Jaya of their own accord, because in Papua New Guinea they were not adequately fed. [bab]

1985 August 05

Somare said that the ABC could base a journalist in Papua New Guinea from September 1985. [bab]

1985 August 11

K1 million to be allocated to Papua New Guinea's Indonesia border projects for the following year; for feasibility study of border highway and feeder roads, maintenance of border stations, water supply, sanitation and quarantine programs, solar panels and transceivers for schools and aid posts, a survey of agricultural potential, construction of Wutung bridge, and some village level projects (K4 million to be allocated over next 4 years); roads to be funded by Public Works, not as part of border development projects late 1985 August 1985 Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs Minister Giheno said that 26 people from Fak Fak had crossed at Yapsie into Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1985 September 15

Somare indicated that the refugees did not want to stay permanently in Papua New Guinea but that any who requested permissive residency would be considered. [bab]

1985 September 17

Bill Morrison after a two week tour of Irian Jaya stated that Irianese were growing tired of the OPM and were informing the Indonesian authorities of OPM activities. [bab]

1985 September 22

Antara reported that 9 Irianese adults and 2 children who had lived in Papua New Guinea for a year had arrived by boat in Jayapura under a supervised repatriation program. [bab]

1985 September 23-26

Joint Border Committee meeting at Rabaul discussed compensation for the road crossing into Papua New Guinea; border development; traditional border crossings; border security; communication on the border; joint search and rescue measures; border survey. Rustam and Giheno attend opening - first meeting when Ministers attend. [bab]

1985 September 24

Matane and Giheno called for closer trade relations between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. [bab]

1985 September 25

Somare said Papua New Guinea had no intention of resettling Irianese refugees. [bab]

1985 September 26

A Memorandum of Understanding on survey and demarcation of the common border was signed. Secretary‑General of the Indonesian Foreign Affairs Ministry, Mr. Soedarmono, told Times that Indonesia and UNDP had signed an agreement for the UNDP to carry out a feasibility study in Irian Jaya on balanced border development. [bab]

1985 September 27

The Post-Courier reported that Hayden has offered to mediate on border problems between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and planned a visit to Papua New Guinea in November. [bab]

1985 September 30

Matane reported as saying that Papua New Guinea wanted no middle-man to negotiate with Indonesia over border issue. [bab]

1985 October

A further 3 West Papuans arrived on Boigu Island, Torres Strait, seeking refugee status. [bab]

1985 October (early)

Three hundred and fifty people from Irian Jaya crossed into Papua New Guinea at Bewani for medical attention; most later moved to Black Water. [bab]

1985 October 04

Fr. Momis, Deputy PM, said that all 10,000 refugees could be accommodated in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1985 October 05

Rustam announced that border meeting had removed distrust between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1985 October 07

Australia to contribute another $400,000 to UN relief programs for Papua New Guinea's border. Australia had already contributed $1.5 million to the UNHCR for West Papuan refugees. [bab]

1985 October 11

Twelve West Papuan camp dwellers from Telefomin deported from Vanimo. [bab]

1985 October 12

About 100 Irianese rioted in Vanimo in response to the decision to forcibly repatriate 12 West Papuans known as criminals. Bishop Etheridge alleged to have created the trouble; gave rise to tally of Etheridge's deportation. [bab]

1985 October 15

Two Irian Jayan refugees were sentenced to 12 months jail in Vanimo for possession of bombs; Ambassador Imam Soepomo denied an Antara report that the 12 West Papuans deported were being kept in jail in Jayapura. [bab]

1985 October 16

115 refugees charged with rioting in Vanimo. [bab]

1985 October 17

Mr. Bais, acting FM, said that Indonesia had invited a pasty of 6 people, including Bishop Etheridge, to visit Irian Jaya to check on treatment of repatriated 12; this invitation was not confirmed. Etheridge had talks with leaders in Waigani; Bais was convinced that Etheridge was nit responsible for the riot. [bab]

1985 October 21

Australian Foreign Affairs Department announced that a further three West Papuans have reached Boigu Island and claim asylum in Australia. An West Papuan permissive resident damaged Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs reception area. [bab]

1985 October 24

Antara reported that talks between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea would be postponed because the Papua New Guinea delegation had failed to arrive in Jayapura on schedule, and Indonesia had not been told why the officials had not arrived. [bab]

1985 October 25

Cabinet approved Morris's plan for repatriation of those not refugees ! and resettlement in Papua New Guinea or through UNHCR for those determined to be refugees; present camps would be relocated further from border, all planned deportations to be halted. [bab]

1985 October 27

Acting Foreign Minister Tony Bais called for countries involved in agreeing to Indonesia's takeover of Irian Jaya in 1963 to accept Irianese refugees. [bab]

1985 October 28

Somare returns from CHOGM in Bahamas, unaware of new government policy on Irian Jaya border crossers; Somare believed Papua New Guinea could handle the issue on its own, as against acting Foreign Minister Tony Bais, who said Australia, Indonesia, USA and Holland should do more to solve the problem. [bab]

1985 November

Australia and Indonesia initial an extradition treaty. [bab]

1985 November 05

Australian High Court considered Immigration Minister Hurford's appeal against Federal Court ruling over Mayer case in 1984, but High Court decided that Immigration must provide reasons for refusing Mayer's application for refugee status. [bab]

1985 November 08‑09

Second Papua New Guinea‑Indonesia Dialogue held at Yogyakarta. [bab]

1985 November 11

Giheno criticised Hayden's view that Papua New Guinea had no 'proper refugee policy' as being patronising; Giheno pointed to the MomisBais policy as Papua New Guinea's refugee policy. [bab]

1985 November 12

In response to Hayden's statement that Papua New Guinea did not have a policy of its own over refugees, Patterson Lowa stated that Australia had no policy of its own. [bab]

1985 November 13‑17

Border Liaison Meeting held at Sorong, dealing with local border administration problems. [bab]

1985 November 16

Mochtar stated that Indonesia's Irianese policies had no bearing on the refugee influx into Papua New Guinea, although there were misconceptions about Irianese policy. [bab]

1985 November 17

An Indonesian survey team was attacked by OPM rebels in the Fly river bulge area; an OPM.man with bullet wounds flown to Port Moresby the following week. [bab]

1985 November 20

Antara reported that an 8 member Papua New Guinea team headed by Mataio Rabura to check on Indonesian treatment of repatriated Irianese were satisfied with the arrangements in Indonesian settlements. [bab]

1985 November 21

Vote of no‑confidence in PM Somare places Paias Wingti in power. [bab]

1985 November 26

Indonesia announced plans to spend K52 million to develop border: highway, health and education, airstrips, industrial and agricultural developments and trading centres; K1.5 million to be spent on border security: over next three years. [bab]

1985 December 03

Geradus Thorny and two assistants surrendered to authorities in Papua New Guinea; sought to speak to officials; Paias Wingti sought UNHCR help for Thomy's resettlement in a third country. [bab]

1985 December 07

OPM leaders James Nyaro and Alex Donald Derey surrendered to Papua New Guinea authorities fleeing from factional fighting in the OPM. [bab]

1985 December 13

Supreme Court Judge Justice Cory ruled that select repatriation from ~) the border camps was according to Papua New Guinea statutes. [bab]

1985 December 18

Papua New Guinea Cabinet rejected a Foreign Affairs submission `, which sought to resettle some genuine refugees in Papua New Guinea. Decision on refugees to be postponed until 1986. [bab]

1985 December 20

Sir Paulias Matane retires as Papua New Guinea Secretary of Foreign Affairs after 5 years' service; William Dihm becomes Secretary. [bab]

1985 December 23

Papua New Guinea Foreign Minister Vagi said that border crossers ' would be sent back after a program was formulated, but that genuine refugees would not be forced to return to Indonesia [bab]

1985 December 31

Four Papua New Guinea students returned to Papua New Guinea from USSR where they had been studying, and where they had been assured of USSR support for OPM; had been asked to contact OPM leaders. [bab]

1986 Jan (late) – Feb (early)

Forty-four West Papuans crossed into Papua New Guinea and surrendered themselves to camp officials at Kuiu and Ningerum camps. After they had appeared in court for illegal entry, Vagi stated that charges would be dropped.] [bab]

1986 January (late)

Bernard Mawen appointed OPM leader of southern faction. [bab]

1986 January 09

PM Paias Wingti and Foreign Minister Legu Vagi agree that Papua New Guinea would be advantaged by becoming a full member of ASEAN but that no final decision would be made until after the middle of the year. [bab]

1986 January 11(?)

OPM reported an OPM attack led by General Boni and take‑over of Waris district headquarters; Papua New Guinea officials later dismissed the report as mere propaganda. [bab]

1986 January 15

Papua New Guinea Foreign Minister Vagi asked some provinces to take refugees temporarily. East Sepik's Jonathan Sengi alleges it will cause more refugees to cross. [bab]

1986 January 16

PM Wingti said approval had been granted for restoration of border (security and a screening of refugees); genuine refugees would be granted permissive residency and moved from border area, prior to resettlement in Papua New Guinea or a third country; illegal crossers would be sent back if they had no genuine ties with Papua New Guinea; border camps to be moved away from the border. [bab]

1986 January 20

Papua New Guinea Cabinet rejected Vagi's submission regarding refugees. Six ministers and Foreign Affairs officials were appointed to a committee to make alternative arrangements. Ministers on the committee were Vagi, Dutton, Bourne, Warena, Matiabe and Wes; Papua New Guinea agreed to accede to UN Convention (1951) and Protocol (1967) on the status and treatment of refugees. [bab]

1986 January 21

Papua New Guinea Cabinet decided to accede to 1951 UN Convention and 1967 Protocol relating to refugees. [bab]

1986 January 24(?)

Gulf Premier, Francis Malaisa, offered the use of Wabo camp as a processing centre for refugees, as a transitional centre, to be funded by UNHCR; 105 Vanimo refugees acquitted of charges of rioting and damaging government buildings in Vanimo. [bab]

1986 January 27

Several West Papuan prisoners were reportedly killed by Indonesian soldiers at Abepura jail Five Australian Opposition MPs led by David Connolly visited Jayapura to study transmigration policy and interviewed 7 West Papuans who had been deported in October 1985, who stated they had been bashed by Papua New Guinea police prior to deportation, and had been interrogated in Irian Jaya over the last 3 months. Governor Hindom told the MPs that he welcomed transmigration and hoped to create a skilled and industrious Irian Jaya free of tribal warfare. [bab]

1986 January 31

Four hundred refugees from Bewani were shifted to Vanimo's Black i Water camp. [bab]

1986 January 31- February 02

Foreign Minister Legu Vagi visits Indonesia to speak to Supardjo Roestam and Benny Murdani. [bab]

1986 February (early)

Another 5 West Papuans arrived on Saibai Island, Torres Strait. [bab]

1986 February (late)

Two more West Papuans arrive in Torres Strait; Mochtar announces a new 'look east' policy to involve Indonesia more with South Pacific nations. [bab]

1986 February 02

Vagi announces that Indonesia and Papua New Guinea will sign a treaty of friendship. [bab]

1986 February 05

Vagi says few crossers were expected to be refugees; most would be sent back; none would be resettled in Papua New Guinea, but in third countries. [bab]

1986 February 08

Moses Werror, leader of the OPM Revolutionary Council, in Madang, threatened that the OPM would destabilise Papua New Guinea ‑Indonesian relations, and protested at the exclusion of OPM from recent talks. [bab]

1986 February 11

47 camp dwellers repatriated by charter aircraft from Kiunga to Merauke [bab]

1986 March 04

John Giheno (Henganofi) criticised the new border policy because of Papua New Guinea's inability to house and educate the refugees, and criticised Papua New Guinea for allowing the UN to dictate to it. [bab]

1986 March 08

Thirty-one West Papuans left Blackwater camp for Irian Jaya. [bab]

1986 March 10

213 West Papuans left Kamberatoro and Amanab for Jaya pura, under UN supervision between 1986 March 10 and 1986 March 20 1986 Six Indonesians were shot dead near the town of Sarmi, 150 km west of Jayapura. [bab]

1986 March 13

Commander-in-Chief of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, Brig. Gen. Tony Huai, left for a 15 day visit of Indonesia to discuss exchange of attaches with Indonesia. Six Indonesians land in Darwin by small boat. [bab]

1986 March 21

Papua New Guinea Government decides to relocate refugees at East Awin Aita1e and Wabo, and to employ 7,000 refugees on a plantation at East Awin. [bab]

1986 March 26

Huai announced that he and Murdani had agreed that Papua New Guinea and Indonesia should seek to eliminate the OPM; would make use of common intelligence sources. [bab]

1986 March 27

Niugini Nius carries a report and pictures of OPM leader Bas Mekawa, who was appointed head of OPM's northern region through a'bush election'. [bab]

1986 March 31

OPM forces kidnap 4 Indonesians and a Melanesian from Urungue. [bab]

1986 April (mid)

A 7 member Australian parliamentary team visited Papua New Guinea to investigate the refugee issue. [bab]

1986 April 04

Bonny Andaya, OPM Chief of Operations, warned Huai that the OPM would not be discouraged by his threats. [bab]

1986 April 06 Fifty

-eight villages sought refugee at Yapsei near Telefomin. [bab]

1986 April 10

OPM capture 13 workers (2 Filipinos and 11 Indonesians) working on the border road near Arso and Senge and destroy roadmaking equipment. [bab]

1986 April 19

Moses Werror announces that the OPM Revolutionary Council had ordered the deaths of 10 Indonesian captives. [bab]

1986 May 02

Border liaison meeting held at Jayapura. Trade relations discussed. Suryanto Sri Wardoyo told press that Papua New Guinea wanted stronger trade ties with Indonesia, especially between Daru and Merauke, in order to buy fuel oil, clothing, construction materials and staple foods. [bab]

1986 May 06

P.M. Wingti stated in parliament that the Government would not tolerate the OPM using Papua New Guinea soil for illegal activities, and that there was no new Government policy relating to this. [bab]

1986 May 15

Fr. John Momis while in Australia announced that the West Papuan cause must be supported by the Papua New Guinea government. [bab]

1986 May 18-19

Huai and Murdani hold talks in Jayapura to discuss border security and exchange of attaches. [bab]

1986 May 21

Papua New Guinea Cabinet approved the draft Treaty of Mutual Respect, Co‑operation and Friendship. [bab]

1986 May 28

Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs Secretary William Dihm visited Jakarta to begin negotiation over the draft of the Treaty. [bab]

1986 June (early)

Talks between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia over the Treaty end in deadlock. [bab]

1986 June (mid)

Amnesty International accused Indonesian military interrogators in Irian Jaya of using torture. [bab]

1986 June 16

Hindom opens five markets on the border. [bab]

1986 June 18

Somare criticises Wingti's government for breaking 'the border development agreement', for neglecting border development and encouraging border crossing by offering permissive residency or resettlement in third countries. The Australian government granted refugee status to 2 of 11 West Papuans in the Torres Strait Islands and granted temporary permits to all 11. In reply to Paul Dibb's defence report, Indonesia's new Army Commander, Lieut.-Gen. Try Sutrisno, stated that Indonesia did not threaten any country. [bab]

1986 June 22

Papua New Guinea announced that it would sign the ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Concord, in a prelude to joining ASEAN, although it did not have full member status, at ASEAN's 19th Ministerial meeting, Manila. [bab]

1986 June 24

Five OPM leaders in Bomana jail were to be flown to Ghana for resettlement. [bab]

1986 June 30

Mochcar told Hayden that Indonesia did not seek repatriation of the 9 West Papuans who had arrived in Torres Strait Islands and who were not judged to be refugees by the DORS committee. [bab]

1986 July (early)

Thirty-eight villagers left Swanda near Wasengla mission in order to work near Waris because of employment prospects. [bab]

1986 July 04

Six Wutung villagers charged with assisting OPM acquitted by Vanimo District Court for lack of evidence. [bab]

1986 July 10

Sixth Joint Technical Sub-committee meeting on survey and demarcation of the border held between Papua New Guinea and Indonesian officials at Arawa Wingti proposes central government control over 60km border zone. [bab]

1986 July 11

Wingti visits Vanimo. [bab]

1986 July 16

Vagi announces that all foreign media personnel are banned from visiting the border. [bab]

1986 July 19

One hundred and twenty-nine camp dwellers repatriated by air from Atkamba camp, W.P., to Mindiptanah; UNHCR officials suggest that a third of the West Papuans camp dwellers may eventually repatriate voluntarily. [bab]

1986 July 29

Bagus Sumitro becomes Indonesian Ambassador to Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1986 July 30

An OPM statement was circulated announcing a restructure of OPM command, with Charles Lawrence Doga as military chief; Martin Prawa as deputy and commander of Biak; Mosek Merani (Seruwi); Timo Katnbu (Sorong); Mathias Wendra (Tanamerah) and Yang Seri (Border region - renamed 'Hollandia'). [bab]

1986 August 06

OPM forces including Lawrence Doga (also known as Charles Mida) appointed Fisor Yarisetouw as new leader and David Jebleb as deputy. [bab]

1986 August 15

Wingti restructures Papua New Guinea Ministerial Committee on Border Development to include Chan, Warena, Wes, Dutton, Ratnoi, Diro and Okuk. [bab]

1986 August 20

Colonel Joe Bau becomes Papua New Guinea's military attache to Indonesia. [bab]

1986 August 21

Eighty-nine refugees at Telefomin have urged government to send them back to Green River. [bab]

1986 August 27

Four OPM leaders in Papua New Guinea's Bomana prison fly to Ghana; they are Gerardus Thorny, Ries Wader, Donald Derey and David Timka; Nyaro did not accompany them as planned due to ill health. [bab]

1986 August 31

Four hundred and forty-six border crossers arrive at Yapsei seeking refuge; consisting of 117 male adults; 122 female adults; 110 male children; 97 female children. Second International Commission of Jurists mission arrives in Port Moresby. [bab]

1986 September 02

Papua New Guinea government and UNHCR sign an agreement under which UNHCR will provide K224,000 for the period up to 31 December 1986 to resettle Irian Jayans in Papua New Guinea Wingti expresses disappointment that UNHCR provided only K224,000 and not K2 million for refugees since 1 January 1986. [bab]

1986 September 03

Seven hundred and forty‑seven West Papuans from villages around the Kiwirok station, several hundred kilometers across the border, arrived to Papua New Guinea, after an attack on their area by Indonesian soldiers in March. [bab]

1986 September 04

UNHCR representative in Port Moresby, Akilaja Akiwumi, ' announced that he would fly to West Sepik to interview the latest border , crossers; he also told press that he had not been notified of the crossings by the Papua New Guinea Government and knew only what he had read in the Papua New Guinea press of the crossings [bab]

1986 September 05

PM Wingti states that there is nothing Papua New Guinea can do regarding West Papuan claims for independence. [bab]

1986 September 06

UNHCR representative Akiwumi told International Commission of Jurists members that the UNHCR had determined that all border camp dwellers were genuine refugees. [bab]

1986 September 19

Reported OPM raid on Mindiptanah military post. [bab]

1986 October 10

Hayden announced that Australia would provide $1 trillion in 1986/87 for the UNHCR to assist in refugee support. Australia had already provided $3 million over the previous two years. [bab]

1986 October 21-26

Four day Joint Border Committee meeting, Bandung. Indonesian Interior Minister Supardjo Rustam, in opening the meeting at Bandung, announced that 6000 refugees had returned to Irian Jaya since February 1984. [bab]

1986 October 26

Indonesian Transmigration Minister Martono announced that only 2000 families and not the planned 5500 had been resettled in Irian Jaya this year, because of the slump in world oil prices which reduced Indonesia's export earnings. [bab]

1986 October 26

Treaty of Friendship, Co‑operation and Mutual Respect signed in Port Moresby by Mochtar and Vagi. [bab]

1986 October 28

Mochtar suggested that Indonesia might seek future joint military actions on the border as a follow-up to the treaty; Mochtar announced that Papua New Guinea and Indonesia planned to set up consulates in border towns in both northern and southern border areas. Papua New Guinea Opposition foreign affairs spokesman, Giheno, criticised the Papua New Guinea government for signing the treaty which he said effectively prevented Papua New Guinea from making any future protests against Indonesia's inhumane treatment in Irian Jaya, and which would label protests against border incursions as 'unfriendly conduct' towards Indonesia. [bab]

1986 October 29

Fisor Yarisetouw, OPM leader and 4 others arrested at Bewani for illegal entry; Charles Doga's group had kidnapped Yarisetouw and handed him over to Papua New Guinea authorities at Bewani. [bab]

1986 October 30

Papua New Guinea Foreign Minister Vagi criticised Australian High Commissioner Micael Wilson for making comments on current developments in Papua New Guinea. [bab]

1986 October 31

Papua New Guinea Foreign Affairs officials announced that Papua New Guinea records existed for only 1000 returnees, compared to Supardjo's claim, repeated by Mochtar, that 5000 refugees had voluntarily returned to Irian Java. [bab]

1986 December (early)

Charles Doga and others of his group were kidnapped near Sekotiau and later reported killed; Papua New Guinea Police and Defence Force units went to the area to deter further fighting. Police ordered Doga's camp of 100 people to leave their camp on the Papua New Guinea side of the border. [bab]

1986 December 11

Ted Diro becomes Wingti's new Foreign Affairs minister. [bab]

1987 January 02

Diro announces that 396 Irian Jayans will be voluntarily repatriated. [bab]

1987 January 19

Sixty-six members of Doga's group cross to Bewani. [bab]

1987 February (early)

Treaty of Mutual Respect, Friendship and Cooperation ratified by i Indonesia's parliament. [bab]

1987 February 17

Indonesian Chief of Staff, Murdani stated that there was a good level of understanding between the Papua New Guinea and Indonesian armed forces. [bab]

1987 March (early) - April (early)

78 refugees from Komopkin and 47 from Tarakbits repatriated. [bab]

1987 March 19

An Indonesian military helicopter was reported to have made an incursion at Wasengla. [bab]

1987 April 07

Australian PM Hawke accused Libya of offering to help OPM leaders in an effort to cause insurrection in Indonesia. [bab]

1987 April 09-10

One hundred and six refugees from Tarakbits, Dome, Iogi and Komokpin were repatriated to Mindiptanah. [bab]

1987 April 11-12

Fifty-two refugees repatriated from Amanab to Jayapura. [bab]

1987 May 13

Moses Werror, OPM spokesman, claims that Libya has provided money and training to the OPM, but that the OPM has not adopted terrorism. [bab]

1987 May 17

Three OPM members from Wamena were arrested at Bewani and charged for illegally entering Papua New Guinea. They were arrested while trying to meet members of their group at Bewani. [bab]

1987 August

Aruru Matiabe becomes Acting Foreign Minister while Diro is under investigation regarding his financial dealings as former Forestry Minister. [bab]

1987 August 06

Wingti reelected as PM. [bab]

1987 August 12

OPM leaders Salosa and Yarisetouw responded to reports that a Jayapura OPM group had surrendered to Indonesia in June by stating that the OPM was continuing its struggle. [bab]

1987 August 17

Matiabe stated that 9,913 border crossers remain in the 16 border camps; 20 from Niogonbam camp and 47 from Morehead were repatriated. [bab]

1987 August 19

Black Water refugees appealed to UNHCR not to be resettled at East Awin. 187 refugees (147 from Atkamba and others from Dome, Black Water and Telefomin were resettled at East Awin.) [bab]

1987 September 04

Matiabe announced that Papua New Guinea would become a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. [bab]

1987 September 21

Wingti stated that Papua New Guinea had not decided on joining the Non-Aligned Movement, and was only investigating the possibility of doing so. [bab]

1987 September 23

Six hundred West Papuans (280 from Dome, 157 from Kotnopkin, 94 from Niogomban and 92 from Tarakbits) to be repatriated; to date, 515 refugees resettled at East Awin. [bab]

1987 September 30

A 'sex racket' involving refugee women from Black Water and senior government officials at Vanimo was reported. [bab]

1987 October (early)

Papua New Guinea Defence Minister James Pokasui tabled a new Defence policy calling for an upgraded Papua New Guinea Defence Force. [bab]

1987 October 12

Papua New Guinea Gulf Provincial Assembly speaker, Leo Kavana suggested West Sepik refugees move to Wabo camp. [bab]

1987 October 26

Diro announced that K124,000 had been raised for him by an Australian business friend. [bab]

1987 October 27

Third Papua New Guinea‑Indonesia Dialogue held in Port Moresby. [bab]

1987 November (late)

Approximately 200 Indonesian troops alleged to have crossed the border into West Sepik. [bab]

1987 November 09

Diro revealed that actually Indonesia's Chief of Staff Murdani had supplied US$ 139,400 to Diro for his PAP election campaign. [bab]

1987 November 10

Papua New Guinea announces that it will receive US military aid and take part in joint training exercises. [bab]

1987 November 11

Murdani denies Diro's claims and tells Parliament that he did not give any money to Diro; Matiabe claims that contributions from foreign politicians and business interests were 'the normal thing' for political leaders to accept. Talks held between Matiabe and Supardjo Rustam. [bab]

1987 November 12

Wingti sacked Matiabe and took over Foreign Affairs ministry himself. [bab]

1987 November 25

Akoka Doi appointed Papua New Guinea Foreign Minister. [bab]

1987 November 26

Papua New Guinea Communications Minister Ramoi proposes media controls. [bab]

1987 December (early)

ASEAN Summit meeting amends Treaty of Amity and Concord so that non‑Asean countries can become signatories; Papua New Guinea is accepted as a signatory. [bab]

1987 December 09

Wingti visits Australia to sign the Joint Declaration of Principles. [bab]

1987 December 17

Wingti sacks Papua New Guinea Defence Force Commander Huai after it became known that Huai had secretly met with Murdani to disclose the contents of the Joint Declaration of Principles while that agreement was being negotiated. [bab]

1988 January 18-21

Wingti visits Indonesia and talks with Suharto and Murdani. [bab]

1988 January 21

Wingti held private talks with Murdani in Bali to discuss the Diro affair. [bab]

1988 January 26

Wingti announced that Murdani had told him that he had given Diro campaign funds. [bab]

1988 March 03

OPM raid on Indonesian transmigration camp at Arso; some civilians killed and hostages taken. [bab]

1988 March 10

Three hostages taken during the Arso raid had been taken to Papua New Guinea and were released to Papua New Guinea authorities; returned to Indonesia by Papua New Guinea on March 14 1988. [bab]

1988 April 03

Approximately 200 Indonesian soldiers entered West Sepik and raided a camp reported to be made up of those who had raided Arso. Indonesian troops remained camped in Papua New Guinea until April 241988. [bab]

1988 April 06

Papua New Guinea border patrol contacted Indonesian troops camped in West Sepik. [bab]

1988 April 11-27

Papua New Guinea Department of Foreign Affairs contacted Itrdonesia to seek Indonesian troop withdrawal from West Sepik. Withdrawal commenced on April 26 1988. One shot was fired by Indonesian troops towards Papua New Guinean soldiers. [bab]

1988 July 04

Reported incursion of Indonesian troops into Western Province near Irimkwe and Kwem villages. [bab]

1988 July 24

Papua New Guinea border patrol confirmed Indonesian troop incursion in Western Province; during Indonesian troop withdrawal, shots were fired first from Indonesians towards Papua New Guineans, whereupon Papua New Guineans returned fire. [bab]

1990-1999

(this section has not yet been compiled)

2000

Not yet available

2001

2001 January 02

PTFI resumes normal mining operations at Grasberg after being limited to 200,000 mtd throughput since the Lake Wanogon disaster. [cb]

2001 January 02

President Wahid visits Timika and delivers speech on Freeport’s past and future performance. [cb]

2001 January 03

ITB team announces that Lake Wanogon is capable of containing additional overburden from PTFI’s mining operations. [cb]

2001 January 08

Director General of Mining Surna Tjahya Djajadiningrat issues permission to Freeport to resume output of 230,000 tons of ore per day. [cb]

2001 January 08

A Navy CASA NC-212 aircraft crashes near Silimo in the Central Range, killing nine people, including Pangdam Maj. Gen. Tonny Antonius Rompis, provincial Police Chief Insp. Gen. Sumardi, the Speaker of the provincial parliament, Nathaniel Kaiway, head of the provincial prosecutor’s office Bismar Mannu, pilot Major Sutopo Waluyo, co-pilot First Lieut. Dedi Heryanto, governor’s adjutant Police Sergeant Jeheskia Z. Malu, First Sergeant Sultan and Ordinary Seaman Gunawan. [cb]

2001 January 09

MAF plane spots wreckage of plane. [cb]

2001 January 10

Komnas HAM announces plans for KPP HAM Papua commission to investigate the 6 December 2000 incident in Abepura. [cb]

2001 January 12

Bodies evacuated from naval air crash site to Timika. [cb]

2001 January 15

Wamena incident trials begin at Wamena District Court – 17 defendants. [cb]

2001 January 16

Presidium members Agustinus Alua, Willy Mandowen, Beatrix Kobur, and Rev, Ketty Yabansabra, questioned by police in Jayapura. [cb]

2001 January 16

Willem Onde’s OPM unit takes 11 workers from Korean logging company PT Tunas Korindo hostage near Asiki, 300km from Merauke, near the border with PNG. [cb]

2001 January 18

Two Korean negotiators and four or five others also taken hostage by Onde – now three Korean and 14/15 Indonesian hostages – one local hostage released to serve as messenger. [cb]

2001 January 19

Mass grave at Merauke examined, possibly containing the bodies of 11 men killed at a flag-raising on Dec 2 2000. [cb]

2001 January 19

Theys Eluay released from arrest in Jayapura for prostate and cardiovascular surgery in Jakarta. [cb]

2001 January 22

Maj. Gen. Mahidin Simbolon appointed as new military commander (Pangdam) for Trikora (Irian Jaya) by Lt. Gen. Kiki Syahnakri. [cb]

2001 January 22

Defence Minister Mohamad Mahfud warns that US and Australia have territorial designs on Irian Jaya. [cb]

2001 January 22

Max Rumbiak and Birmandus (TPN commanders in Bonggo area) surrender weapons seized from Kopassus on 24 December 2000. [cb]

2001 January 23

Wamena District Court proceeds with subversion trials of 17 defendants in relation to the 6 October 2000 clashes in Wamena. [cb]

2001 January 23

Mathias Wenda, George Kogoya and 11 other OPM arrested by PNG police in Vanimo area for illegal entry. [cb]

2001 January 24

Brig. Gen. I Made Mangku Pastika appointed Police Chief. [cb]

2001 January 26

Ban announced on visits by foreign journalists to Irian Jaya, Aceh and Maluku, adding to an existing ban on diplomatic travel to these three areas. This “ban” is “clarified” by Minister for Foreign Affairs Alwi Shihab on Jan 29 as a request that foreign journalists first seek ministry approval. [cb]

2001 January 28

13 of 16 hostages freed by Onde group. Three hostages (Kamilus Muyu, Kun Kwan and Lee Jong Myong) still held as guarantee of promised meeting with President Wahid. [cb]

2001 January 30

Earthquake measuring 5.8 on Richter scale hits Manokwari, Biak and Sorong. [cb]

2001 January 31

Reports of 400 refugees from Jayawijaya fleeing to Vanimo during December / January. [cb]

2001 February 03

4 Kopassus soldiers (3 from Group 4, 1 from Group 1) killed by OPM unit at PT Somalindo timber camp near Kuivar / Kuefa village in the Betaf area. One OPM member, possibly the leader Mesak Kawir / Dawin, also killed. [cb]

2001 February 03

OPM attack on Brimob defending a camp of logging company PT Dharma Mukti Persada at Wonggema Village, Wasior district, Manokwari. [cb]

2001 February 04

Betaf OPM return guns captured in attack on Kopassus. [cb]

2001 February 05

Pratu Sugianto (Brimob) killed in Nabire, possibly in clash with TNI troops. [cb]

2001 February 05

Three Kopassus and Kostrad troops injured in clash near Betaf. [cb]

2001 February 06

NY Times journalist encounters difficulties of access in a visit to Timika to prepare a story on Freeport. [cb]

2001 February 07

Three last Korindo hostages released by Willem Onde’s group. [cb]

2001 February 08

ElsHAM reports major military operation underway in Betaf, Sarmi, Tor Atas and Bonggo subdistricts in retaliation for Feb 3 deaths. [cb]

2001 February 09

ElsHAM reports police brutality towards prisoners of Wamena incident (6 October, 2000). [cb]

2001 February 22

On or before this date, Willem Onde visits Jakarta. [cb]

2001 February 26

Police shoot dead Robert Ongge in Jayapura, ostensibly in response to his attempt to extort from shop owners. [cb]

2001 February 27

Plans announced (again) for the division of Irian Jaya into three provinces, and the creation of an additional 16 districts. [cb]

2001 March

Undated incidents in Nabire area between March and May lead to deaths of at least four people (Nus Youw, Leo Douw, Anselmus Pakage, Luikius Kogoya). [cb]

2001 March 01

Harapan villagers erect roadblocks to Sentani Airport in protest at death by shooting of local resident Robert Ongge. [cb]

2001 March 02

Police and Brimob remove Sentani roadblock. [cb]

2001 March 02

Jayapura customs impound 500 used cars from Japan. [cb]

2001 March 06

PNG police riot squad attacks refugees in Catholic church camp near Vanimo. [cb]

2001 March 07

WALHI’s suit against PTFI for misleading statements about the Lake Wanogon dump opens in the South Jakarta District Court. Adjourned till March 21. [cb]

2001 March 07

RI and PNG discuss repatriation of 371 Dani refugees. [cb]

2001 March 07

Reports of diarrhea epidemic in Borme district, Jayawijaya. [cb]

2001 March 09

PNG launches police investigation into attack by PNG riot police on West Papuan refugees in Vanimo (3 days earlier). [cb]

2001 March 10

MOU on environmental management in Papua signed by BAPEDALDA, PTFI, BP Indonesia, WWF, USAID and others. [cb]

2001 March 10

Irian Jaya Provincial Assembly calls for a financial stake in PTFI. [cb]

2001 March 11

Coordinating Minister for Political, Social and Security Affairs, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono announces plans to deploy troops to quell separatist sentiment in Irian Jaya and Aceh. [cb]

2001 March 13

Former US Ambassador to Indonesia, J. Stapleton Roy, is elected to the Board of Directors of Freeport-McMoRan. [cb]

2001 March 13

Mama Josepha reported missing in Jakarta. [cb]

2001 March 15

KPP HAM team quizzes senior police over Abepura incident. [cb]

2001 March 15

Presidium members (Theys Eluay, Thaha Al Hamid, Rev Herman Awom, Don Flassy and Jhon Mambor) temporarily released from arrest. [cb]

2001 March 15

MV Bangun Jaya, ship owned by logging company PT Sumalindo, gutted by fire while at sea from Jayapura to Takar, killing at least two passengers. [cb]

2001 March 15

Trial of Jakarta students begins – charged with sedition. [cb]

2001 March 16

Questioning of police chiefs by KPP HAM continues – Daud Sihombing questioned. [cb]

2001 March 19

Wahid announces plans to pardon Theys Eluay if convicted. [cb]

2001 March 20

Local Aranday community members threaten to close BP’s gas fields if they are not compensated for destruction of sago groves. [cb]

2001 March 23

Governor Salossa announces plans to pursue mega-projects, including a cement factory in Jayapura, the Mamberamo hydro-electric project, and the Tangguh natural gas project. [cb]

2001 March 27

Reports of diarrhea epidemic in Merauke. [cb]

2001 March 28

Otsus Concept Seminar at Cenderawasih Sports Centre, Jayapura results in conflict between police and demonstrators, and the subsequent death of a demonstrator, Philipus Murib. [cb]

2001 March 30

Theys Eluay meets President Wahid. [cb]

2001 March 30

Agreement to establish cement factory using Freeport tailings signed by the governments of Timika and the Northern Territory (Australia). [cb]

2001 March 31

OPM unit in the Wonggema area of Wasior sub-district takes three timber workers from PT Dharma Mukti Persada hostage, later killing them. [cb]

2001 April 02

OPM member Peter Si Alom arrested in Vanimo. [cb]

2001 April 02

Chairman of Provincial Parliament Committee F on Human Rights Augustin Iwanggin calls on PTFI to commit more resources to training Papuans. [cb]

2001 April 04

Three gaharu collectors (Uyang Kunang (21), Hengky Masad (25), Burham (21)) are killed at Kali Kopi (Timika), apparently by OPM unit led by Goliath Tabuni. [cb]

2001 April 04

World Bank extends US2.2m in aid to Irian Jaya. [cb]

2001 April 04

Clash in Abepura market claims one life (11-year old Richardo Itaar). [cb]

2001 April 05

President Wahid refuses a request to nullify subversion charges against Presidium 5. [cb]

2001 April 05

President Wahid’s aides admit to paying Rp 70m in assistance to Theys Eluay to cover the cost of his hospital treatment. [cb]

2001 April 06

Police find the bodies of the three kidnapped timber workers from PT Dharma Mukti Persada near Wonggema Village, Wasior area. [cb]

2001 April 06

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, meets ElsHAM staff member John Rumbiak in Geneva. [cb]

2001 April 09

President Wahid calls for establishment of major airforce base at Biak, as the base for a new Sectoral Command IV. [cb]

2001 April 10

Students at the Jayapura Institute of Science and Technology (ISTJ) call for the resignation (for fraud) of Rector Moh. Ali Kastella. [cb]

2001 April 10

KPP HAM announces findings of its investigation into the Abepura incident of December 2000. [cb]

2001 April 10

John Rumbiak meets with Ms Liz O’Donnell, Irish Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. [cb]

2001 April 16

Governor Salossa submits draft legislation on special autonomy to President Wahid. [cb]

2001 April 17

Police HQ (Jakarta) issues a written protest at findings of KPP HAM investigation into Abepura incident. [cb]

2001 April 18

Emmy Hafild (WALHI) publicizes environmental impacts at Freeport. [cb]

2001 April 19

Bishop Bonaventu (Vanimo) announces that recent refugee arrivals now total about 500, after 26 more make a night crossing by boat. [cb]

2001 April 19

Brimob officer Dani Pamungkas shot dead in a brawl at Asiki; two youths arrested. [cb]

2001 April 23

Mama Yosepha Alomang, Amungme activist, is awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize for her resistance to the mining operations of PTFI. [cb]

2001 April 26

Trial of 5 Papuan activists (Isak Baho, Lukas Tenau, Dance Iek, Azer Sagas, Lukas Iha) charged with raising the Morning Star flag at Brongkedik village on 1 Dec 2001 opens in Fakfak. [cb]

2001 April 27

DPR and GOI agree to postpone indefinitely the date for passage of special autonomy legislation for Aceh and Irian Jaya, beyond the May 1 deadline originally stipulated in MPR Decree No. 4/2000. [cb]

2001 May 01

Flag-raising at Fanindi (Manokwari) reportedly results in the shooting and wounding of six people, and the arrest of six others. [cb]

2001 May 01

John Rumbiak testifies, on the matter of human rights abuses in Papua, to the UNHCR in Geneva, on behalf of the World Council of Churches. [cb]

2001 May 03

Governor’s Otsus draft gains backing from 60 members of DPR, but is opposed by the Military and PDI-P factions. [cb]

2001 May 03

PDP delegation led by Tom Beanal visits Nauru for talks with President Rene Harris. [cb]

2001 May 09

The Papuan Women’s Congress, scheduled to run from 9-12 May in Jayapura, is shut down by Brimob officers (It opens several months later on July 24, 2001). [cb]

2001 May 13

Clash between TNI Yonif Unit 753 and police in Nabire. [cb]

2001 May 14

Trial of Presidium 5 opens in Jayapura, with charges laid against Theys Eluay and Don Al Flassy (though John Mambor is absent due to illness). Case against Eluay adjourned for a week. [cb]

2001 May 14

Air force announces plans to establish larger air base in Biak. [cb]

2001 May 19

Media reports of PDP approaches to China for recognition of independent Papua. [cb]

2001 May 20

5 Papuan activists from Fakfak involved in 1 Dec 2001 flag-raising sentenced to 18-month jail terms. [cb]

2001 May 30

China denies support for Papuan independence. [cb]

2001 June 07

Two Belgians, initially described as documentary film-makers from the Arte TV channel but more probably tourists, Philippe R.D. Si (49), a veterinarian, and Johan Elia Theo van Den Eynde (47), a second-hand book dealer, are taken hostage at Paluga Village near Ilaga by OPM unit led by Titus Murib (though various media reports identify the leader as Daniel Awom and/or Kelly Kwalik and/or Penny Murib). [cb]

2001 June 10

First reports received of hostage-taking in Ilaga. [cb]

2001 June 13

OPM attack at Wondiboi, Wasior Sub-district, kills 5 Brimob officers and one worker from PT Vatika Papuana Perkasa. [cb]

2001 June 16

PDP holds 5th Plenary Session at Mutiara Hotel, Kotaraja (results announced at press conference on 18). [cb]

2001 June 16

Three companies of troops from Kostrad Battalion 752 arrive by boat in Jayapura. [cb]

2001 June 18

Attorney-General Baharuddin Lopa announces new team of enquiry into KPP HAM findings relating to the Abepura incident. Team to be led by H.M.A. Rachman. [cb]

2001 June 18

Don Flassy, one of the 5 Presidium members on trial, reported to have fled to PNG, though it transpires that he has gone to Port Moresby to attend the launch of a book co-authored with UPNG linguist Otto Nekital. Jayapura Court orders his arrest. [cb]

2001 June 19

PNG announces postponement of refugee repatriation due to shortage of funds. [cb]

2001 June 19

October 2000 incident prisoners released in Wamena pending notification of a decision about their appeal from the Supreme Court. [cb]

2001 June 19

ElsHAM issues plea in relation to police and military operations in the Wasior area, involving an estimated 2000 troops (later estimated by church groups to be between 300-600). [cb]

2001 June 25

Churches appoint two mediators, Theo van den Broek (Catholic) and Benny Giay (Protestant) to negotiate with the Ilaga hostage-takers. [cb]

2001 June 25

17 people arrested for interrogation about the Wondiboi killings. [cb]

2001 June 25

Hubertus Wresman (26, of Takar or Nengke Village) kidnapped and later killed by security forces in Betaf area. [cb]

2001 June 26

PM John Howard of Australia voices support for Indonesia’s territorial integrity in advance of visit by President Wahid. [cb]

2001 June 26

Don Flassy re-arrested on his return to Jayapura from PNG. [cb]

2001 June 26

Minister of Defence Mahfud rules out the possibility of a referendum for Papua. [cb]

2001 June 27

Octo Mote receives Hellman/Hammett Grant award from Human Rights Watch. [cb]

2001 June 28

DPR agrees to accept Governor Salossa’s draft as the basis for discussion on Otsus for Papua. [cb]

2001 June 29

US State Department Director of Policy Planning Richard Haass calls for dialogue and rejects military solutions to separatist movements Indonesia. [cb]

2001 July 10

Police officer killed during Wasior operation. [cb]

2001 July 11

Security tightened at Freeport in anticipation of a rumoured OPM attack. [cb]

2001 July 13

Satgas Koteka leader Videlis Zonggonau denies any knowledge of plans to attack Freeport and identifies rumours as part of a military campaign to justify increases in troop numbers. [cb]

2001 July 13

Navy detains shipment of used cars from Japan off Jayapura. [cb]

2001 July 16

Nabire police report arrest of three men suspected of involvement of June 13 Wondiboi killings. [cb]

2001 July 16

ElsHAM reports details of torture, execution and destruction of property associated with security operation “Comb and Destroy” in the Wasior area. [cb]

2001 July 18

ElsHAM Director, Yohannes G. Bonay, receives death threats by phone. [cb]

2001 July 18?

In a clash between different OPM factions in Vanimo area, new commander Terry / Terianus Yaram (of the former Hans Bomai faction) is killed, along with Si Alom (of Wenda’s faction) and Mathias Kogoya, and Mathias Wenda regains control. [cb]

2001 July 20

Daan Yairus Ramar (51), head of the Wondama tribal council, arrested on 15 July in Yapen, is killed by police while under arrest in Manokwari. [cb]

2001 July 23

Megawati Sukarnoputri installed as President of the Republic of Indonesia. [cb]

2001 July 23

Four men (Tonci Baransamo, Hermanus Metani, Nataniel Yoweli and Yohanis Marani - the first three are primary school teachers) are arrested in connection with the Wondiboi killings of June 13. [cb]

2001 July 24

The Papuan Women’s Conference, with 500 delegates, opens in Jayapura. In his opening speech, Tom Beanal calls for independence for Papua in response to the fall of President Wahid. [cb]

2001 July 26

Pertamina announces discovery of oil at Salawati Island. [cb]

2001 July 27

Attorney-General’s office returns Abepura dossier to KPP HAM for revision, as the material conditions relating to witnesses are apparently incomplete. [cb]

2001 July 27

DPR begins debating the draft bill on Otsus for Papua. [cb]

2001 August 01

Maj-Gen. Simbolon apologizes for harmful actions of TNI in Irian Jaya but vows not to compromise with the OPM/TPN. [cb]

2001 August 03

Media reports of a meeting between communities and government officials at which the Wasior subdistrict was declared free of separatist activity. [cb]

2001 August 04

Church mediators enter third round of talks with Belgian hostage-takers in Ilaga area. [cb]

2001 August 07

Nauru withdraws visas for West Papuan activists, barring them from attending the forthcoming Pacific Islands Forum, on the grounds that their internal divisions are potentially disruptive. [cb]

2001 August 07

The four Papuan students arrested for their part in a pro-independence rally in Jakarta on 1 Dec 2000 are acquitted of the charge of rebellion, but found guilty of disturbing the public order and given sentences that match their period of confinement since December. They are then formally released. The defendants’ lawyer says he will appeal against the sentences. [cb]

2001 August 07

Church mediators in Belgian hostage case return to Jayapura without success. [cb]

2001 August 08

PDP’s international spokesperson, Franzalbert Joku, announces that Prof Sam Blay, of the University of Technology of Sydney, has been engaged as a consultant on the question of a legal challenge to Indonesian sovereignty over West Papua. [cb]

2001 August 13

Megawati’s first cabinet meeting nominates the ‘resolution’ of separatist movements in Irian Jaya and Aceh ‘within five months’ as its first goal. [cb]

2001 August 13

After meeting with John Howard in Jakarta, Indonesian legislators express satisfaction at Australia’s role in urging the Pacific Islands Forum not to debate West Papua. [cb]

2001 August 13

Puncak Jaya Regent Elieser Renmaur accuses Freeport of secretly mining within Puncak Jaya regency without paying compensation. [cb]

2001 August 16

In her first formal address to the nation, President Megawati apologizes for human rights abuses committed in Irian Jaya and Aceh under previous governments. [cb]

2001 August 16

Belgian hostages Philippe Si and Johan van Den Eynde are released and flown to Jayapura. [cb]

2001 August 16

Pacific Islands Forum opens (formal sessions end 18). [cb]

2001 August 20

Manuel Kaisiepo, State Minister for Accelerated Development in the Eastern Part of Indonesia, delivers an address to the Post-Forum Dialogue of the Pacific Islands Forum. [cb]

2001 August 20

MAF plane crashes at Koropun. [cb]

2001 August 27

Police and soldiers (from 611 Infantry Battalion) fight each other with gunfire and grenades at Serui, on Yapen Island, leaving two soldiers dead and two more soldiers and two policemen injured. [cb]

2001 August 27

TPN attack on Sarmi Police substation near Sarabera Village (Jayapura regency) leaves two civilians and four TPN members injured. [cb]

2001 August 28

TPN (?) attack on a police post on Bintuni, apparently without casualties. Three ‘TPN’ members arrested. [cb]

2001 August 28

South Jakarta District Court finds Freeport guilty of having supplied incorrect information to House Commission VIII in relation to the functioning of early warning systems. [cb]

2001 September 07

PT. Trigana Air Service announces new fight routes servicing Jayapura, Wamena and Mulia. [cb]

2001 September 10

Body of missing Papuan health-worker from Wasior found with legs cut off. [cb]

2001 September 11

23 members of US Congress write an open letter to Megawati calling on her to ensure a respect for human rights in West Timor, Aceh and West Papua. [cb]

2001 September 11

Earthquake measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale hits Sorong. No reported fatalities. [cb]

2001 September 13

Johannes Tumeng, assistant to OPM commander Willem Onde, found dead from gunshot wounds in Marau River, Merauke, after visiting the PT Korindo office in Asiki with Onde on 10 September. [cb]

2001 September 15

The body of Willem Onde, OPM commander in the Merauke region, with his hands bound and two gunshot wounds to the chest, is recovered from the Kumundu River, a tributary of the Marau River. [cb]

2001 September 17

Attack on party of workers from PT Salaki leaves one surveyor dead and five injured in Betaf area. Attributed by police to OPM. [cb]

2001 September 19

Yableh and Yahim tribe members block road to Sentani airport in protest at lack of land compensation. [cb]

2001 September 20

Sibi Tribe members block Jayapura wharf in protest at lack of land compensation. [cb]

2001 September 20

President Megawati meets with Congressman Faleomavaega in Washington D.C. to discuss human rights issues and special autonomy in West Papua. [cb]

2001 September 23

OPM attack on the Kostrad Infantry Battalion 511 post at Bonggo transmigration settlement. Two OPM members are killed and two transmigrants taken hostage. [cb]

2001 September 23

People in Serui attack the local parliament (DPRD) building in protest against harassment of travellers on a boat from Serui to Dawai. [cb]

2001 September 23

Freeport McMoRan president Jim-Bob Moffett seeks guarantee of security for PTFI’s mining operations in Papua from President Megawati during her visit to Houston, Texas. [cb]

2001 September 23?

Soldier shot in Kali Kopi area, Timika. [cb]

2001 September 25

Fire in APO Gunung area of Jayapura destroys hundreds of houses, leaving 985 families homeless. [cb]

2001 September 25

Freeport announces establishment of a trust fund for Amungme and Kamoro communities, on the basis of an agreement signed in New Orleans on Sep 3 by community leaders and Freeport management. [cb]

2001 September 27

Fruata villagers of the Babo area of Bintuni Bay protest illegal logging of their land by PT Agoda Rimba Irian, a subsidiary of the Djajanti Group. [cb]

2001 September 28

Titus Murib’s OPM unit of between 200-500 members takes control of Ilaga, destroying government buildings and a mosque. One OPM member killed and two soldiers injured. Freeport refuses to assist in the helicopter transfer of troop reinforcements. [cb]

2001 September 28

Merauke administration announces water supply shortage. [cb]

2001 September 30

The Sultan of Tidore offers to mediate in settling the demands of the Papuans. [cb]

2001 October 02

TNI troops begin to re-occupy Ilaga. [cb]

2001 October 04

Provincial military commander Simbolon sacks 8 senior officers of the Trikora Command in an apparent response to recent intelligence and operational failings; they include Col Tonny Armien (Trikora Assistant Intelligence), Col H. Simanjuntak (Ass Territorial Affairs), Col. Endang Sutrisno (Zeni / Kazidam) and Trikora Military Inspector Col. Nur Suradji. [cb]

2001 October 04

Ilaga reported to be completely under TNI control. [cb]

2001 October 04

John Calvin Werianggi, village head in Windesi sub-district, is arrested and killed by security forces. [cb]

2001 October 10

TNI troops occupy OPM camp in village of Meruai, Bonggo subdistrict. [cb]

2001 October 10

Joint forces team, involving military, police and retired military officers, as well as civilians, leaves Jayapura to conduct a ‘sweeping’ operation in the Wasior area. [cb]

2001 October 12

TAPOL releases details of the Matoa document, a leaked operational plan dated November 2000, and arising from a meeting at the Matoa Hotel on 8 June 2000, which outlines government plans to suppress Papuan secessionist sentiment, identifying popular leaders in the Papuan community. [cb]

2001 October 13

Two expatriate urban planning consultants, Frenchman Sebastien Bole Besancon and German Pieter Hans Ingo, are arrested in Sorong on charges of defaming the Mayor of Sorong, Jumame, and involvement in a demonstration. [cb]

2001 October 15

Drunken Brimob officer reportedly stabbed to death in Biak market. [cb]

2001 October 16

TNI troops capture 7 OPM (Pegemis Kogoya, Isak Nawea, Ones Waker, Yolinus Alom, Samuel Nawipa, Edi Kogoya, Tobias Magal) and 2 guns from a campsite of Kelly Kwalik’s OPM unit in the Kali Kopi area, Timika. Reports of the death of another OPM member, John Magai, and the deaths of five soldiers are not confirmed. . [cb]

2001 October 18

UNHCR pulls its support from the Transmitter refugee camp in Vanimo. [cb]

2001 October 20

PDP announces its rejection of the Special Autonomy Bill, foreshadowing the imminent passage of the bill through the DPR. [cb]

2001 October 22

DPR formally passes the Special Autonomy Bill for Papua at midnight, after making numerous changes to the Governor’s draft. The Bill is due to come into force in January 2002. . [cb]

2001 October 25?

Police in Sorong arrest a member of Laskar Jihad from Ambon for carrying home-made bombs. [cb]

2001 November 01

Governor Salossa announces that President Megawati will visit Jayapura on December 22 to hand over the new law on Special Autonomy. Salossa also identifies education as the prime target for government spending under the new revenue regime. [cb]

2001 November 01

Police close down a meeting of the West Melanesia Christian Democratic Party at Hamadi Rawa church, Jayapura, arresting leader J.M. Paiki. [cb]

2001 November 05

Former President Wahid fails to appear to testify in defence of Theys Eluay at the Jayapura District Court. [cb]

2001 November 07

Two-day PNG-RI 20th Joint Border Committee meeting opens in Alotau, PNG. Indonesian delegates include Minister for Home Affairs Hari Sabarno, Police Chief I Made Mangku Pastika, and Governor Salossa. Agreement is reached to repatriate the Vanimo refugees. [cb]

2001 November 07

Merauke DPR proposes that Merauke be made a separate province. [cb]

2001 October 07?

Police shoot dead OPM commander Jacobus Mawen and arrest 18 others in the Merauke area. [cb]

2001 November 10

Theys Eluay and his driver, Aristoteles (“Ari”) Masoka are abducted by unknown assailants while returning home after a function at Kopassus headquarters. Ari escapes and asks passers by to take him back to the Kopassus base at Hamadi, where he talks briefly to Theys’s wife, Yaneke Ohee, by mobile phone before the line is cut. Ari subsequently disappears. [cb]

2001 November 11

6 am. Theys Eluay is found dead in his car, crashed in a ravine near the Koya Tengah transmigration settlement, in the Skou area southeast of Jayapura. Although They's was known not to drive, he is found in the driver's seat of the vehicle with his hands tied behind his back. Rioting reported in Sentani and Abepura. [cb]

2001 November 12

Theys’s body is taken to the DPR building in a demonstration.

Dr Kelemen Mayakori, Head of the Jayapura General Hospital, declares that Theys died of a ‘lack of oxygen’, but rules out strangulation – later reports suggest asphyxiation through the use of a plastic bag over the head. Maj.Gen.Simbolon suggests that Theys died of a heart condition. Akbar Tandjung ascribes Theys’s assassination to political motives. Police Chief Sihombing announces a preliminary finding of murder. Kopassus widely identified by observers as likely suspects. [cb]

2001 November 12

Hotel Ratna in Sentani is destroyed. [cb]

2001 November 13

Apparent poisoning of water supply in Waena, Jayapura.

2001 November 13

President Megawati orders an official investigation into the murder. M.S. Kaban, Secretary General of the conservative Islamic Crescent Star Party (PBB) suspects the hands of separatists seeking to harm Indonesia’s reputation. National Police Spokesman Saleh Saaf suggests the involvement of OPM hardliners in the murder. Amien Rais, MPR speaker, suspects the involvement of a ‘third party’. Bob Lowry, ICG analyst, also raises possibility of hardline OPM involvement. The Pacific Islands Forum and European Union condemn the murder and call for a swift investigation. Theys’s body is returned to Sentani, follo by an estimated 7-10,000 people on foot. [cb]

2001 November 13

AMA plane crashes near Nabire, killing four of the five on board. [cb]

2001 November 14

In Mulia, a suspected OPM member from the Ilaga incident, Elesius Tabuni, is arrested and then shot ‘trying to escape’. He is sent by plane to the military hospital in Jayapura but dies en route. [cb]

2001 November 15

PDP leaders demand that President Megawati guarantee their safety. [cb]

2001 November 16

OPM attack on police station at Barapasi, in the Waropen area, leaves one civilian dead and another injured. [cb]

2001 November 16?

Jakarta fashion designer Carmanita launches a new range of designs drawing on West Papuan rock art motifs and jungle imagery. [cb]

2001 November 17

Theys Eluay is buried in a football field near Sentani airport, re-christened “Hero’s Cemetery”, attended by a crowd estimated at more than 10,000 in number. [cb]

2001 November 19

Kopassus Chief Maj.Gen.Amirual Isnaeni announces that no Kopassus troops were involved in the murder of Theys Eluay, and threatens to sue anyone suggesting otherwise. [cb]

2001 November 20

650 Kostrad Linud airborne troops land at Merauke in preparation for possible unrest on Dec 1. [cb]

2001 November 23

Kontras coordinator Ori Rahman accuses the government of orchestrating the murder of Theys, pointing to the Matoa document as evidence of planning for such an event. [cb]

2001 November 24

Komnas HAM says there are indications of Kopassus involvement in Theys’s death. [cb]

2001 November 25

Independent Journalists Alliance (AJI) office in Jayapura attacked by unknown assailants. [cb]

2001 November 25

Coordinating Minister for Political, Social and Security Affairs, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, announces plans to deploy an additional 32,500 soldiers and police, or 51 battalions, to Aceh and Irian Jaya, ‘solely to accelerate the process of a peaceful settlement to the conflicts’. [cb]

2001 November 26

Religious leaders in Papua, both Christian and Moslem, call for a truly independent inquiry into the Eluay murder. [cb]

2001 November 26

400 marines land at Sorong in preparation for possible unrest on Dec 1. [cb]

2001 November 27

National police prepare a second team to investigate the Eluay murder. [cb]

2001 November 27

CINCPAC, Admiral Dennis Blair, warns against military solutions to the conflicts in West Papua and Aceh, but declares himself convinced of the army’s sincerity in the reform process. [cb]

2001 November 27?

Minister Hari Sabarno claims that the Matoa plans to counter separatism in Irian Jaya were never put into effect due to a shortage of funds. [cb]

2001 November 28

An estimated 1000 OPM members attack a police post on Kimaam Island, Merauke district. Two OPM members are killed. [cb]

2001 November 28

PDP Secretary-General, Thaha Al-Hamid, receives text messages threatening him with a fate similar to that of Theys. [cb]

2001 November 29

50 Papuans protesting outside the UN offices in Jakarta accuse the government and military of conspiring in the murder of Theys Eluay. [cb]

2001 November 30?

Lt Col Hartomo and 7 other Kopassus officers questioned by the joint investigative team of enquiry into the Eluay murder. [cb]

2001 December 01

Subdued and peaceful celebrations of December 1 are held across Papua. Some 1500-2000 attend a prayer meeting and ceremony led by Tom Beanal at Sentani.

2001 December 01

ElsHAM releases a report indicating the involvement of Kopassus in Theys’s murder. [cb]

2001 December 03

PDP Chairman Tom Beanal sets a deadline of December 10 for the government and police to identify the murderers of Theys Eluay. [cb]

2001 December 04

Maj.Gen.Simbolon denies the involvement of any soldiers in the Eluay murder.

2001 December 04

Provincial religious leaders write to Komnas HAM to urge an independent commission of enquiry into the Eluay murder, without members from the government, police or military. Bambang Soeharto and Koesparmono Irsan, the Komnas HAM team of enquiry into the Eluay murder, arrive in Jayapura. [cb]

2001 December 06

The five Papuans arrested for their role in a flag-raising at Brongkendik village in the Fakfak area in December 2000 are freed. [cb]

2001 December 06

Police sent to the PNG border area to follow up rumours that Ari, Theys’s driver, had fled to PNG, return without success. [cb]

2001 December 10

Kopassus troop reinforcements arrive in Timika. 300 people demonstrate in front of the DPR office in Timika in protest against the troop build-up. [cb]

2001 December 11

Several thousand student and youth demonstrators march from Abepura to the Governor’s office in Jayapura to protest the lack of progress on solving the Eluay murder, and to reject the forthcoming Dec 22 visit by President Megawati. [cb]

2001 December 12

Student protest outside Governor’s office continues, with growing numbers. [cb]

2001 December 13

An estimated 5-7000 are now involved in the student protest in front of the Governor’s office. The Governor meets with protestors. [cb]

2001 December 14

Student protest in Jayapura continues. [cb]

2001 December 17

ElsHAM releases the results of its own investigation into the Eluay assassination, clearly indicating the involvement of Kopassus and other TNI units. [cb]

2001 December 18

Student protestors stage a sit-in at government offices in Jayapura, including the local parliament. [cb]

2001 December 19

President Megawati calls for swift resolution of Eluay case.

TNI Chief Endriartono Sutarto opens possibility that ‘rogue troops’ may have killed Theys Eluay. [cb]

2001 December 19

50 Papuan religious leaders express support for the Special Autonomy plans in a meeting with Governor Salossa. [cb]

2001 December 20

Government announces the formation of an independent team of inquiry into the Eluay assassination. [cb]

2001 December 20

President Megawati postpones her planned visit to Papua on December 22. [cb]

2001 December 20

A shooting incident occurs near the Tembagapura mine in which two PTFI workers are attacked, one of them (Lucia) being shot and seriously injured – the identity of their attackers remains uncertain. [cb]

2001 December 22

Some 700 student demonstrators gathered in Jayapura are dispersed violently by anti-riot police, and 42 students are arrested. [cb]

2001 December 24

President Megawati apologizes to the people of Papua for the delay in her visit. [cb]

2001 December 26

TNI sends a 5-member team of enquiry into the Eluay case to Jayapura, under Army Intelligence Chief Brig Gen.Sardas Markus. [cb]

2001 December 29

President Megawati tells a major military parade in Jakarta not to worry about human rights abuses in the performance of their duty. Among those present at the parade are a large unit of non-Papuan troops “dressed” as Papuans, and Brig Gen.Mahidi Simbolon. [cb]

2002

Not yet available

2003

Not yet available

2004

Not yet available




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