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Faidiban, Oktofianus Rudolf 2006 Cattle reproduction in Manokwari Papua - Indonesia, M.Phil. Thesis, University of Queensland
    © Oktofianus Rudolf Faidiban , 2006. Use of any part of this thesis for any purpose must be acknowledged.


Poor reproductive performance of cattle is a problem in many developing countries, the major objectives of this study was to characterise the reproductive performance of Bali cows based upon nutritional management practises where the cattle were (i) grazing (P), (ii) were tethered in paddock during day, tethered at the farmers house at night with grass cut and carried and fed at night (PZ), and (iii) had zero grazing, with all feed supplied to tethered animal via cut and carry (Z). A second objective was to determine the major factors which influence the reproductive performance of these animals. Cattle were identified using ear tags or neck collars (prior to the study most animals had no identification), aged (using their teeth) into groups (1.5 3 years of age; 3.5 5; 5.5 7; > 7 years of age), body condition scored (BCS 1- 5; 1 emaciated, 2 lean, 3 medium, 4 fat, 5 very fat), and reproductive status assessed (lactating or not lactating, pregnant or not pregnant). The data were collected three times (March, July and October) over a 9 month period. Data were analysed using SAS. Over the period the mean pregnancy was 57 %. There were no measured seasonal effects on pregnancy rate. Cows that were over 7 years of age (n= 25) had a higher (P< 0.01) pregnancy rate (74%) compared to those aged 1.2 3 years of age (37%) (n=25). The majority of cows had BCS of either 2 (n=162) or 3 (n=128). Five cows had a BCS of 5 (very fat) and 10 cows had a BCS of 1 (emaciated). Pregnancy rates increased (P<0.05) as BCS increased (37%, 50%, 64%, 73%, 63% respectively for BCS 1 5). Over the 9-month, 84% of the P cows, 92% of the PZ cows and 78% of the Z cows were either pregnant and lactating or cycling at one of the three data collections. However, the feeding system had a significant (P< 0.05) effect on pregnancy rate, with the Z cows averaging 30% pregnancy over the 9-month period compared to 58% for h group and 57% for the PZ cows.

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