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Jus'at, Idrus 1991 Determinants of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in Indonesia: An Analysis of the National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas), 1987, PhD Dissertation, Cornell University.

Judul: Penentu-penentu Status Gizi Anak-anak Pra-Sekolah di Indonesia: Sebuah Telaah Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Susenas), 1987.

    © Idrus Jus'at, 1991. Use of any part of this thesis for any purpose must be acknowledged.


Energy protein malnutrition (EPM) can be prevented by the implementation of policies and programs that foster the establishment of an environment conducive to the health and nutritional well being of vulnerable population groups. Such policies and programs are founded on the knowledge of the determinants of nutritional status. The main objective of this study is to identify plausible determinants of nutritional status among preschool children as measured by z-score of weight-for-age (ZWA). Approximately 55,000 households were interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics in 1987, as part of the National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), and of these around 21,000 households had preschoolers. Of the 21,000 some 19,692 households had 26,428 preschoolers with complete data and are the subjects of this analysis. The prevalence of EPM, using a cut off less than or equal to minus two ZWA, is approximately 41 percent. Mean ZWA shows a marked drop in the nutritional status from 1 month to about 11-13 months and there is no apparent catch up growth at later ages. Using bivariate piecewise regression, 12 months of age was determined to be the best estimate of when the decline in ZWA stops. Therefore, priorities in nutrition policies and programs should be aimed at improving the nutritional status during infancy with an objective of reducing growth faltering. Two stage least square regression on two age groups, 1-11 and 12-59 months, identified the following independent risk factors of low weight-for-age: male sex, lack of immunization, an episode of illness in the previous week, high birth order, rural residence, high number of preschool children in the household, low level of income per adult equivalent unit (AEU), low calorie consumption per AEU and low maternal education. The aforementioned characteristics are important for targeting programs and activities geared to improving nutrition at the household level. The regional patterns of EPM assessed by ranking the prevalence and regression coefficients suggest that Kalimantan, Maluku-Irian Jaya, Sumatera and Nusa Tenggara should be priority regions for nutritional intervention and policy consideration.


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