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Theses and Dissertations about Papua
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Soepangat, Soeharini 1986 Indonesian School as Modernizer: a case study of the Orang Lembah Baliem Enculturation (Indonesia), PhD Dissertation, Florida State University.
    © Soeharini Soepangat, 1986. Use of any part of this thesis for any purpose must be acknowledged.


This study examined a schooling process that is aimed at producing responsible citizens and modern individuals who can participate in the national process of growth and development of Indonesia. Specifically, this study focused on the enculturation, through elementary schooling, of the tribal children into the mainstream of Indonesian social and cultural life. This study is based on descriptive data collected over a period of six months in Pikhe-Aikima in the Baliem Valley of Irian Jaya, by use of an ethnographic/naturalistic approach. The specific strategies used included participant observation, informal conversations, structured and unstructured interviews with pupils, teachers, parents, and community leaders. Elementary mapping and document analyses were also used. The ethnographic data were corroborated by cross-checking them with various sources in the community, i.e., residents and local officials, and with official documents and reports available at the local government offices. Analysis and interpretation of the data were made from the informants' points of view, drawing principally from a critical and interpretive cultural framework. The study showed that the teaching-learning process in Pikhe-Aikima elementary schools fails to realize the citizenship and modernity goals the government has laid out for schools to perform. Little teaching-learning occurs in the school. Teaching is done by the teacher by 'parroting' from the textbooks the information to be learned; learning is by memorization and is determined by the pupils' performance on examinations. It was concluded that the transformation of the tribal children from primitive into responsible, modern Indonesians will not be realizable in the immediate future. Their incorporation and assimilation into the Indonesian social mainstream will not be possible given what is taught them, how it is taught, and what is not taught in the present schooling that is being ineffectively carried out in Pikhe-Aikima.


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