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Hak Cipta (Copyright), Papua and Papuaweb

(Update terakhir - September 28, 2005 - Last update)

Copyright in the digital age raises complex national and international legal issues with associated moral dimensions. Most domestic (national) copyright law is based on the Universal Copyright Convention of 1952 (amended Paris 1971) and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works of 1971 (amended 1979). Indonesia and Australia (along with 153 other states) are parties to the Berne Convention. The most significant international copyright development since the Berne Convention is the inclusion of intellectual property rights in the Uruguay Round Agreements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) concluded in 1994. GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organisation in 1995 as the key regulatory instrument of the international trading system. Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea are contracting parties (members) of the WTO, obliging their citizens to abide by the "Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights" (Uruguay Round Agreements, Annex 1C).

Users of www.papuaweb.org are asked to respect Papuaweb's conditions of use and are reminded of the legal instruments protecting the copyright of contributors to this website (listed below). The "related links" section includes additional information on copyright and other intellectual property issues available via the world wide web (internet).

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright approval for materials reproduced on this website and to ensure that all contributions are consistent with relevant copyright laws and the spirit of the "fair dealings" provisions for research, teaching and educational purposes contained in the following legislation: Sections 41 and 42 the Australian Copyright Law of 1968 (Act No.63, 1968 including amendments contained in Act No.148, 2003); Article 15a of the Indonesian Copyright Law of 2002 (Undang-Undang 19/2002) and Section II, Article 11b(ii) of Papua New Guinea's Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000 (Act No.21, 2000). If you have any questions, comments or concerns about copyright issues related to this website or the Papuaweb Project, please contact infopapuaweb.org.


  • Universal Copyright Convention (Geneva 1952, amended Paris 1971) [rtf 82k]
    Parties to the Universal Copyright Convention [html 137k]
  • Berne Convention (1971, amended 1979) for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works [html 172k]
    Parties to the Berne Convention [pdf 73k]
  • Uruguay Round Agreements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Annex 1C (1986-94)
    Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) [pdf 194k]
    Members (Contracting Parties) to the World Trade Organisation, April 2004 [html 140k]

  • Australian Copyright Law (No.63, 1968) [rtf 1.7Mb]
        An introduction to copyright in Australia by the Australian Copyright Council.
  • Indonesian Copyright Law (Undang-undang Nomor 19, 2002) [html 110k]
  • Papua New Guinea Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act (No. 21, 2000) [pdf 380k]
Related links:

  © Copyright UNIPA - ANU - UNCEN PapuaWeb Project, 2002-2005.

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