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Papua, Indonesia.

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Papua Barat, Teluk Cendrawasih, Papua Selatan, Papua Utara, Pegunungan Tengah

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West Papua, Cenderawasih Bay, South Papua, North Papua and Central Highlands provinces

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belum tersedia dalam Bahasa Indonesia - not yet available in Indonesian.

Berita terbaru - Papuaweb - Latest news

These pages written by Michael Cookson for www.papuaweb.org.
(Last update - October 22, 2005).

(Trouble with broken links or HTTP 404 Error: Page not found?)

An annotated guide to 70 Papua related websites or webpages with the general themes of:

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN PAPUA

The province of Papua has a land area of around 422,000 square kilometres, which represents approximately one-fifth of the total land area of Indonesia. Its extensive land and marine resources have traditionally provided for the many diverse indigenous peoples of the region, but are under growing pressure from commercial forestry, fishing, mining, oil and gas exploitation, agribusiness (such as oil palm plantations), hydroelectricity projects, migration and urbanisation. While some of these issues have received attention from government and activists, it remains difficult to get clear and reliable web-based information about most resource development projects in Papua. Several government offices have a central role in advancing all major development projects in Papua, including the Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional or National Development Planning Agency (www.bappenas.go.id), its provincial counterpart, the Provincial Development Planning Agency or BAPPEDA (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah) and the recently established KAPET (Kawasan Pengembangan Ekonomi Terpadu) Office for Integrated Regional Economic Development (see www.geocities.com/indonesianet/index.html). The 12 KAPET offices in various parts of Indonesia are intended to facilitate foreign investment by working through various government departments like the Directorate General of Customs and Excise (see www.beacukai.go.id and www.indonesia.org.bn/org/indonesia/business/bus_guide.htm). The KAPET office on the outskirts of Biak (the main town on Biak Island) is responsible for coordinating regional development in the Biak-Mimika economic zone, which includes the Freeport Indonesia contract of work area, the development of the Tangguh natural gas fields in Bintuni Bay and the massive Mamberamo hydroelectricity project. BAPPEDA and KAPET are also responsible for the promotion of other industry and business developments in the Biak Industrial development zone and across Papua (visit KAPET Biak-Mimika at www.cendrawasih.or.id).

What follows is a list of some of the most prominent resource issues in Papua. Some webpages about these specific issues are included in this section, while links to general NGO sites are discussed in the later section on NGOs and international awareness campaigns.

Dams, electricity and the Mamberamo River basin

The Trans-Papua Highway project aims to link Jayapura with Merauke and also link Jayapura to the central highlands town of Wamena before it goes west across the mountainous Paniai Lakes region to the coastal town of Nabire. While the rugged mountains of Papua's interior provide a major challenge to the construction of this road, it is reported that all the major bridges between Jayapura and Wamena have been completed and that vehicles can now cross the broad Idenburg River. The Idenburg is just one of the major rivers which drains the Mamberamo water catchment basin to feed into the huge Mamberamo River. In the mid-1990s, B.J. Habibie, then Minister for Research and Technology (www.ristek.go.id), promoted his vision for the Mamberamo through Badan Penerapan dan Pengembangan Teknologi (BPPT) or the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (www.bppt.go.id). This proposal involved the damming of the Mamberamo River to create a massive hydroelectricity project capable of supplying electricity to all of Papua and the surrounding region (see www.geocities.com/TheTropics/Island/4175). The project raised a wave of protest among environmentistals and other activists, many of whom believe that the Mamberamo region and its indigenous groups should be protected against such developments (see http://home.snafu.de/watchin/Mamberamo.htm and www.insideindonesia.org/edit55/mamb.htm). Little is known about the natural diversity of the Mamberamo basin or the lives of its indigenous peoples, although a few studies have been conducted by WWF and Conservation International (these URLs are in the NGO section). While there have been few recent reports about the proposal, in 2001 Governor Jaap Salossa stated that the project would proceed. While the Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) or the State Electricity Company established a pilot hydroelectric project near Wamena with the assistance of AusAID (working with the Indonesian contractor PT Wijaya Karya at www.wika.co.id), most other towns in Papua continue to be supplied with electricity from power stations operating on diesel fuel (see www.pln.go.id).

Forestry, fisheries and agribusiness (including oil palm)

Forestry, fisheries (and aquaculture) and agribusinesses (like oil palm, cocoa and copra plantations) are the most significant small and medium scale natural resource industries in Papua. These businesses are generally operated by Indonesian or foreign companies working with permits from the national government in Jakarta, although the new provisions of Special Autonomy Legislation in Papua may see this change over time. Few of the resource extraction companies working in Papua have any visible web presence. The list below is not indicative of the wide variety of companies in Papua, but at least provides some sense of these activities in Papua.

Forestry
In the Forestry sector, the Departmen Kehutanan or the Forestry Department (www.dephut.go.id) has been responsible for managing the forest resources of Papua and also for the monitoring and protection of many nature reserves within the province. Many businesses involved in the timber industry in Papua are members of timber trade networks like the Indonesia Wood World Net (www.iwwn.com). Conglomerates like Korindo (www.korindo.co.id) and Land and General (www.land-general.com) through its subsidiaries like PT Wapoga Mutiara Indonesia (www.wapoga.com) hold timber concessions to large areas in Papua as do many other companies, although few are represented on the www. One way to find out more about timber companies in Papua is by looking at websites of industry groups like the Asosiasi Pengusaha Hutan Indonesia or the Indonesian Forest Concession Holders Association (www.aphi-pusat.com or for a list of HPH concessions and concessionaires directly to www.aphi-pusat.com/members/hph-irian.htm).

Fisheries and aquatic resources
Papua has extensive coastlines, many of which are rich in marine life. Many of the most significant companies involved in the fisheries sector in Papua such as PT Djajanti (involved in forest and fisheries extraction operations across Papua) , PT Usaha Mina (in Sorong) and PT Biak Minajaya's fish cannery business on Biak Island do not have websites and online information about the activities of these and other similar companies is very limited. Fishing concessions are awarded by the Departmen Kelautan dan Perikanan (www.dkp.go.id) and these agreements are critical to the economic prosperity of Papua and the security of the region. The importance of such agreements in the fisheries sector is illustrated by a visit of the Australian Torres Strait Regional (Government) Authority to PT Djajanti fisheries operations in Merauke (www.tsra.gov.au/2499.pdf). The commercialisation of Papua's marine resource has diversified in recent years to include pearl farming by Atlas Pacific (www.atlaspacific.com.au) in the Waigeo Islands. Such diversification has been evident for decades in the commercial uses of Papua's freshwater river systems which have been vital for transportation, logging and in sustaining the supply of new eggs necessary for the continued operation of the large Bintang Mas crocodile farm. This industry was established in Papua as part of the Fund for the Development of West Irian (FUNDWI) in the late 1960s. More information about crocodile farming in PNG and Papua can be found on the Food and Agriculture Organisation website (www.fao.org/docrep/t8850E/t8850e05.htm) and general information about crocodiles in Papua and elsewhere in the world is available through the Crocodile Specialist Group website and newsletter (see www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/HERPETOLOGY/NEWSLETTER/news204p75-79.htm

Agribusiness (including kelapa sawit (oil palm), cocoa and copra plantations)
In recent years oil palm has become the most significant agribusinesses in Papua, contributing to the export earnings of the province but also to the rapid clearing of forested lands. Websites like those of Sinar Mas's Agro Resources and Technology subsidiary (PT SMART Tbk at http://207.158.227.254) give some indication of the investment that this (and other) Indonesian conglomerates have made in the palm oil industry, but web-based information about this important industry remains extremely limited. However, webpages documenting aspects of this business in Papua do exist, although may have to be found through indirect searches. Finance for oil palm plantations come from a variety of sources, including Dutch Banks (www.focusonfinance.org/Dutchbanks.htm), as palm oil is a major food commodity. Effective market analysis is crucial to profitability in this global industry, so there are a range of reports about the sector and projections for future consumption and sales (for example see www.arabis.org). Concern about the social and environmental effects of this industry in Indonesia prompted the formation of Sawit Watch (www.sawitwatch.org) and has led to highly critical articles about the industry and its activities in Indonesia (www.insideindonesia.org/edit58/wakker.htm).

Mining and mineral exploration and extraction (including Freeport and BHP-Billiton)

Although there are few actual mining projects in Papua today, there is a widespread perception within Papua and across Indonesia that the province is mineral rich. While exploration by mining companies like PT Freeport Indonesia and PT Inco (www.inco.com) has been quite extensive, exploration geology is time-consuming, the terrain challenging and the land area vast. However, if geologically contiguous Papua New Guinea is a reliable indicator, it does seem likely that other significant mineral resource projects will be developed in Papua in the future.

The lead government agency responsible for mining and mineral exploitation in Indonesia is the Departmen Pertambangan dan Energi or the National Department of Mining and Energy (www.dpe.go.id). Other sites like the Indonesian Mining Association portal (www.miningindo.com), the Australasian Mining Industry portal (www.reflections.com.au/MiningandExploration/index.html), the Indonesia pages of the Mining Technology website (www.mining-technology.com/industry/indonesia.html) and more general mining portal sites like Infomine (www.infomine.com) all have information about the players in the Papuan mining industry. More general information about mining and its social, economic and environmental challenges can be found at sites like those of the Minerals, Mining and Sustainable Development Project (www.iied.org/mmsd). What follows are webpages related to two of the largest mining companies in Papua: Freeport Indonesia's operations at Tembagapura and BHP-Billiton' Gag Island project.

Freeport-Indonesia
PT Freeport Indonesia is a subsidiary of Freeport McMoran Copper and Gold, with its head office in New Orleans in the United States of America (www.fcx.com). This company has an extensive and easily navigated website although a local search with keywords like "Grasberg", "Ertsberg", "Tembagapura", "Timika", "Kuala Kencana" may retrieve specific information more quickly. While PT Freeport once owned most of the core businesses associated with its mining operations in Papua for many years, it now relies on contractors or company affiliates for much of its operations. Hatfindo environmental consultants (www.hatfindo.com) have worked extensively with Freeport and have information about their biodiversity survey work for the company online (www.hatfieldgroup.com/featured/bio.htm). Airfast is a Freeport Indonesia contractor (www.airfastindonesia.com) and information about other contractors can be found on the Freeport website or by web searches with the keywords listed above. Some insight into expatriate life in the Freeport town or Kuala Kencana near Timika can be found at the expat indonesia website (www.expat.or.id/info/kualakencana.html and the Kuala Kencana ladies club (http://tembagapura.com or http://communities.msn.com/LadiesofKualaKencana). An extensive bibliography of writing related to Freeport (till 1998) is available online through the Resource Management in Asia-Pacific project at the Australian National Univesity (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/rmap/Pages/Textonline/Biblio_ij.html).

BHP-Billiton's Gag Island project
This is a major nickel concession off the mainland of the island of New Guinea in Papua. While the project is in an early stage of development, there is some information available about it on the web from a project partner, PT Aneka Tambang (www.antam.com/Development/JV/ptgag.htm) and an environmental report (http://envcommreport.bhp.com/Planning/gag-island.html) as well as information on the BHP-Billiton website (www.bhpbilliton.com). AAR is a legal firm which has represented BHP-Billiton in Gag Island negotiations (www.aar.com.au/services/resources/experience.htm) while BHP-Billiton staff have already received awards for their involvement in the project to date ((http://hsec.bhpbilliton.amm.com.au/HSECAwards/community.html). A background report on the world nickel industry can be found by searching on the United States Geological Survey website (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals) while other specific information on the Gag Island project can be found at the Mines and Communities website (www.minesandcommunities.org/Country/gagisland1.htm).

Oil and gas exploration and extraction (including BP's Tangguh Project)

Oil exploration and extraction began in Papua in the early part of last century with the activities of several Dutch oil companies, including the Netherlands New Guinea Petroleum Company (read an account of work with this company at http://members.tripodnet.nl/FotoRik/nngpm.htm). This and later exploration and extraction of oil, particularly in the Bird's Head of Papua, has driven the rapid growth of the town of Sorong and the trend is set to continue with the recent discovery of massive natural gas reserves in Bintuni Bay (commonly referred to as the Tangguh gas project). Pertamina, the Indonesian State Oil and Gas company (www.pertamina.co.id), has a core role in this and other related projects. An explanation of the government regulatory environment for such projects can be found online (see www.usembassyjakarta.org/petroleum/bab-1.pdf). Some of the biggest multinationals involved in oil and gas exploration and development in Papua include Conoco (www.conoco.com) and BP (formerly British Petroleum) and its joint venture partners in the Tangguh Gas Project in Bintuni Bay on Papua's west coast (Bird's Head region).

Tangguh Gas Project
    "This year saw the coming together of some of the largest players in Indonesia's energy industry: BP Amoco, ARCO, and Castrol. With the BP Amoco and ARCO merger finalized in April and the integration of Castrol three months later, the new "BP" launched its new brand in July 2000. BP is one of the largest foreign investors in Indonesia, and the largest supplier to the Java gas market. BP's largest project in Indonesia is Tangguh, a world-class LNG project in Papua with proven natural gas reserves of 14.4 TCF [trillion cubic feet] and additional probable reserves of 3.9 TCF. The Tangguh LNG project consists of three PSC [Production Sharing Contract] blocks: Wiriagar, Berau, and Muturi. BP (80 percent) . and Kanematsu (20 percent) jointly own Wiriagar. Berau is 48percent owned by BP, 17.1‑percent by Nippon Oil, 12‑percent by Kanematsu and 22.9‑percent by Occidental Petroleum. BG Exploration and Production holds a 50‑percent stake in the Muturi Block; Cairns Ltd., a subsidiary of Malaysia's Genting Bhd, holds 45 percent; and Nisho Iwai holds the remaining five percent..." (quote extracted from pg.25 of the Petroleum Report Indonesia 2000, US Embassy, Jakarta, www.usembassyjakarta.org/econ/petro-toc.html).

BP Amoco's official website (www.bp.com) has some information about the Tangguh joint venture project which can be found with the use of a local search engines. There are also a wide range of contractors who have been involved with Tangguh and other large-scale resource developments in Papua, including URS Asia Pacific (www.ap.urscorp.com) and Enesar www.nsrenv.com.au. Many of the news sources listed in the "News" section of this www-vl (www.papuaweb.org/vl/www/02.html) also contain recent information about developments at Tangguh (use local searches on sites like www.feer.com). If you want to learn more, use some of the company names and gas field locations from the following text as keywords for web searches:

National Parks Management in Papua

Papua is one of the most diverse regions in the world and for this reason its National Parks are one of the most significant natural resources in the province even if their immediate commercial value is not realised. The estabishment, monitoring and protection of National Parks in Indonesia is the responsibility of the Direktur Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam or the Director General for the Protection of Forests and the Conservation of Nature, a division of the Ministry of Forests and Plantations (www2.bonet.co.id/dephut/phpa.htm). A map and details of National Parks in Papua can be found on Ed Colijn's homepage (http://users.bart.nl/~edcolijn/irian.html), which also has a wealth of other information about Papua's natural environment. The most prominent conservation area in Papua is the Lorentz National Park, which was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1999 (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/955). Other significant National Parks in Papua include Wasur (see information about Wasur in the Wetlands Database www.wetlands.or.id/irj20.htm) and Cenderawasih Bay National Marine Park. See more about these and other National Parks on the Natural Resources Management website, a collaborative project between USAID and the Indonesian Government (www.nrm.or.id). A great deal more information about these parks can be found on the websites of WWF Indonesia, WWF Sahul and Conservation International (listed in the NGO Environmental section of this www-vl).

Other businesses in Papua

There are a host of other business interests and activities in Papua. Few have a web presence and most rely on business linkages with companies in other parts of Indonesia. One of the easiest and most publically accessible places to look for information about businesses in Indonesia is the Indonesian Stock Exchange (www.indoexchange.com). There are also several directories prepared by business associations and companies and even several CD-ROM packages (eg. www.disb2b.com) available with extensive information about the activities of businesses across the country. International business linkages are also being encouraged between Indonesia and Australia through concepts like the Australia Indonesia Development Area and its directory of businesses in Indonesia. The AIDA directory has a short listing of Papuan businesses online (www.aidabusinessdirectory.com). Additional information about businesses in Papua can be found through web searches of Indonesian companies operating in the province such as PT Djajanti. Businesses in Papua with representation on the web include Indoprima Jayapura, a computer supplier and host of the InfoPapua portal (www.infopapua.com) and one of the largest banks in Papua, Bank Pembangunan Daerah or the Regional Development Bank of Papua (www.bpdirianjaya.com). The Departmen Perindustrian dan Perdagangan or the Department of Industry and Trade (www.dprin.go.id) has responsibility for promoting businesses relationships in Papua and across Indonesia.


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